Tuna el-Gebel: Egyptological Bibliography by Dieter Kessler

(last entry 11/00)

In the beginning the Tuna el-Gebel bibliography had been compiled as a personal scholarly working instrument. Later on it was subdivided into 18 different chapters and short comments added, for the help of scholars and other interested people. Not all articles, especially those outside of Egyptology, could be seen personally and not every paper containing an isolated reference to the site of Tuna el-Gebel is listed here. More famous objects from Tuna are given at least with their latest available reference, which often summarizes the older ones. The omissions are in my responsibility. It is also not my intention to present all objects having a more or less sure or highly probable provenance Tuna el-Gebel (or Hermopolis West, rarely Kom el Ahmar Dirwa or Dirwa). More or less attributable to the ibis galleries of Tuna are statuettes (bronzes, wood, silver) of ibises or ibis parts and many baboon statuettes, kept in our museums. Also many fayence amulets had been found inside the galleries, but we can’t exclude their attribution to the human tombs nearby. Definitely certain ibis mummies, which have a certain common shape, are originating from the galleries. The mummy masks, torn off from the mummified corpses of the heavily plundered Roman cemetery, are often attributed to Tuna by stylistic reasons. Articles concerning the Greek, Aramaic and Coptic inscriptions from Tuna can be given here in an highly individual selection only. Special lists of objects from Tuna in different museums and private collections are in preparation. It should be kept in mind, that many papers, especially excavation reports, are touching different themes and time periods, listed here often under one heading only. A bibliography should be a living organism, from time to time we have to renew the entries.

1. Comprehensive books and papers
2. Geology and Prehistory
3. Akhenaten boundary stelae
4. New Kingdom and later cemeteries
5. Excavation reports
6. The southern cemetery
7. Tuna-South: finds and find groups
8. Djed-Thotefankh/Padikem
9. The Great Temple
10. Area of the ibiotapheion
11. Ibiotapheion: finds
12. Oracle papyri and inscr.
13. The juridical/mathematical papyri
14. The Aramaic Papyri
15. Greek inscriptions
16. Coptic and Arabic Papers
17. Gods/sacred animals of Hermopolis
18. Hermopolis (selected literature)

1. Comprehensive books and papers containing general information
  1. Dia Abou-Ghazi and Ramadan el-Sayed (editors): Sami Gabra, From Tasa to Touna (Vies et travaux II), Cairo 1984
    (a reedition of different scientific papers of Gabra, containing also an incomplete list of finds from Tuna el-Gebel in the museums of Cairo, Mallawi, Alexandria, etc.)
  2. S. Gabra, Chez les derniers adorateurs du trismegiste, Cairo 1971
    (giving a short description of Gabras excavations at Tuna. Very often Gabra uses the photos printed by the London Illustrated News Newspaper. His statements are in many cases written from his memory)
  3. S. Aufrère – J. Cl. Golvin, L’Égypte restitutée, tome 3, sites, temples et pyramides de Moyenne et Basse Égypte, Paris 1997, 211-217
    (description of the site of Tuna and Hermopolis. Tuna photos see p. 208)
  4. G. Grimm, Tuna el-Gebel 1913-1973. Eine Grabung des deutschen Architekten W. Honroth und neuere Untersuchungen in Hermopolis-West (Tanis Superior), in: MDAIK 31, 1975, 221 – 236
    (publication of the German excavations in the southern necropolis, with a useful summary of the older scientific literature)
  5. Dr. Hishmat Messiha – Mohammed A. Elhitta, Mallawi Museum, A brief description, Cairo 1978
    (museum catalogue in English, the corresponding catalogue in Arabic, Cairo 1973, shows some differences)
  6. Instituto Papirologico G. Vitelli (direttore M. Manfredi), Tuna el-Gebel, Necropoli di Hermupolis, Florenz 1989
    (modern map of the area to the south of Petosiris, scale 1:1000)
  7. Edmé Francois Jomard, Description de l’Eypte, Texte, 4, 1821, 182-185
    (describes Tuna village and its surroundings)
  8. H. Kees, s.v. ‘Tanis’ (2) and s.v. ‘Thonis’(2), in Pauly-Wissowa, Realenzyklopädie (= RE) IV, A 2, col. 2178 (Stuttgart 1932) and VI A (2), col. 330 (Stuttgart 1936)
  9. D. Kessler, Historische Topographie der Region zwischen Mallawi und Samalut (TAVO No. 30), Wiesbaden 1981, see pp. 83-109
    (history of the necropolis area)
  10. D. Kessler, Tuna el Gebel, in Lexikon der Ägyptologie Bd. 6, Wiesbaden 1986, col. 797 – 804
  11. D. Kessler, Die heiligen Tiere und der König, Teil 1: Beiträge zu Organisation, Kult und Theologie der spätzeitlichen Tierfriedhöfe (ÄAT Band 16), Wiesbaden 1989, see pp. 194-219
    (tries to show, that the ibiotapheion is not an expression of an isolated popular belief but an integrated part of a cultic ensemble, part of each Egyptian necropolis)
  12. P. Pensabene, Elementi architettonici di Alessandria e di altri siti Egiziani, in: Repertorio d’arte dell’Egitto Greco-Romano, fondato da A. Adriani, serie C, vol. III, Rom 1993, 257-272
    (maps and description of the more important Greco-Roman tombs in Tuna, containing also the main Ptolemaic and Roman monuments in Hermopolis Magna)
  13. W.M.F. Petrie, Tell el-Amarna, Egypt Exploration Fund, London 1994
    (map of Tuna area)
  14. B. Porter – R. Moss, Topographical Bibliography of Ancient Egyptian Hieroglyphic Texts, Reliefs, and Paintings, IV, Oxford 1934, 169-175
    (inscribed objects from Tuna)
  15. G. Roeder, Hermopolis 1929-1939, Ausgrabungen der Deutschen Hermopolis-Expedition in Hermopolis, Ober-Ägypten, Hildesheim 1959, 19
    (short chapter concerning Tuna el-Gebel and it`s topography)
  16. Ramadan el-Sayed, Tounah el-Gebel – bilan et projets de travaux, in: L’Egyptologie en 1979 vol. 1, CNRS, 1982, 275-278
    (announces a project of the University of Minia)
  17. P. Timme, Tell el Amarna vor der deutschen Ausgrabung im Jahre 1911 (WVDOG 31), Leipzig l917
    (Map 1: 25000 and description of Tuna-South with photos)
  18. J.A. Tyldesley, Tuna el-Gebel, in: Encyclopedia of the Archeology of Ancient Egypt, London-New York 1999, 847-849
    (short description of the site)
  19. J. Yoyotte, Notes de toponymie égyptienne, in: MDAIK 16, 1958, 413-430
    (the etymological explanation of the toponym Tuna/Thynis see pp. 423ff.)
2. Geology and Prehistory
  1. K.W. Butzer, Archäologische Fundstellen Ober- und Mittelägyptens in ihrer geologischen Landschaft, in: MDAIK 17, 1961, 54-68
    (see also the article of Kaiser, both resulting from the same survey along the desert edges)
  2. W. Kaiser, Bericht über eine archäologisch-geologische Felduntersuchung in Ober- und Mittelägypten, in: MDAIK 17, 1961, 1-53
    (see pp. 28-31)
  3. R. Klemm-D. Klemm, Steine und Steinbrüche im Alten Ägypten, Berlin Heidelberg New York 1993, pp. 124-127
    (quarry near the second western Stela of Akhenaten)
  4. K.S. Sandford, Paleolithic Man and the Nile Valley in Upper and Middle Egypt. University of Chicago Oriental Institute Publications 18), Chicago 1929
    (see pp. IX, XI, 32. 50. 78. 115-116)
  5. J.A. Tyldesley-S. R. Snape, Nazlet Tuna, An Archaeological Survey in Middle Egypt (BAR Int. Series 414), Oxford 1988
    (survey around the village of Tuna el-Gebel)
3. The boundary stelae of Akhenaten at Tuna (selected literature)
  1. Ed. de Cadalvène – J. de Breuvery, L’Égypte et la Turquie: de 1829 à 1836, Paris 1836, 244
    (stela A)
  2. J.-M. Carré, Voyageurs et écrivains francais en Égypte (RAPH) 1, Cairo 1956, 50
    (journeys of Père Sicard in Middle Egypt with stela A)
  3. G. Daressy, Tombeaux et stèles-limites de Hagi-Qandil, in: Rec. Trav. 15, 1893, 61-62
    (no. 8: text of stela A. His no.7 is clearly the quarry site to the west of the ibiotapeion of Tuna, photographed later by P. Timme in his survey book)
  4. N.de G. Davies, The Rock Tombs of El Amarna, V, London 1908, 23.24.27 and pl. 33. 34.36
    (mentions Stela A, B, F, pl. 43 is a drawing of stela A by Robert Hay 1827)
  5. Robert Hay, MSS BM 29814, fols. 32-34
    (see N. de G. Davies)
  6. R. Lepsius, Denkmäler aus Aegypten und Aethiopien, vol. 1, 61; III, 91; Text, 1-2, Vol. 11, 113-114
    (stela A)
  7. W. J. Murnane – Ch. C. van Siclen III, The Boundary Stelae of Akhenaten, London-New York 1993
    (latest text edition)
  8. Nestor L’Hôte, Lettres écrites d’Egypte en 1838 et 1839, Paris 1840, 129-134
    (stele A)
  9. W. M. Flinders Petrie, Tell el-Amarna (Egypt Eploration Fund), London 1894
    (containing a map of the area of Tuna)
  10. É. Prisse d’Avennes, Monuments égyptiens, Paris 1847, pl. 14
    (stela A)
  11. J. Vandier, Les stèles-frontières d’El-Amarna, à propos d’une nouvelle acquisition du Musée du Louvre, in: Mon. Piot 40, 1944, 5-22
  12. Vandier d’Abbadie, Nestor L’Hôte (1804-1842), Choix de documents conservées à la Bibliotheque Nationale et aux archives du Musée du Louvre, Paris 1963, pl. 15
  13. Van de Walle, La découverte d’Arnarna et d’Akhenaton, in: RdE 28, 1976, 7-24
    (literature concerning stela A see p. 9 adn. 10. The oldest representation is a phantastic drawing of Père Sicard from 1714)
  14. J.G. Wilkinson, Topography of Thebes and general view of Egypt, London 1835, 383
    (stela A)
  15. J.G. Wilkinson, Modern Egypt and Thebes, London 1843, vol. II, 69
4. The cemeteries of Tuna el-Gebel (objects from the New Kingdom through the Ptolemaic time)
  1. H. Abou Seif, Rapport sur deux sarcophages découvertes à Touna el-Gebe1, in: ASAE 28, 1928, 61-65
    (the sarcophagus of the Hermopolitan High priest Ahmose, see the article of Gabra, in: ASAE 28, 1928, 66-79)
  2. Th. G. Allen, A Handbook of the Egyptian Collections, Chicago 1923, 15
    (sarcophagus of a priest Thot-herethau, probably from Tuna)
  3. D. Aston, The shabti box, a typological study, in: OMRO 74, 1994, 40-41
    (New Kingdom ushebti box from Tuna in New York, see also Hayes, Scepter of Egypt, II, no. 428)
  4. J. and L. Aubert, Statuettes égyptiennes, chaouabtis, ouchebtis, Paris 1974, 106 (of overseer of cattle Thotmes = Weill, 1922, 424-428 = Schneider 1977, I, 196).122-123 (of the later Ramesside ‘Great of Five’ Thotmes = Schneider, 1977, I, 206). 236 (of Anchhor). 248-249 (of Thotirdis). 260
    (the publication summarizes New Kingdom and later ushebti from Tuna in Paris, Turin, London, etc. Recorded are also Tuna ushebti in private collections – known to me is an ushebti of the ‘Great of Five’ Thot-rekh. Petosiris is mentioned Aubert, p. 264)
  5. L. Berman, Catalogue of Egyptian Art. The Cleveland Museum of Art. New York 1999, 350-351 no. 262
    (two ushebti of the overseer of Cattle Thotmes from Tuna, mus. no. 1914.589 and 1914.590 with references)
  6. F.W. von Bissing, Die zeitliche Bestimmung der mit Relief geschmückten ägyptischen Kelchgefäße, in: Nachr. Akademie der Wiss. Göttingen, phil.-hist. Kl., 1941, 249-284
    (New Kingdom glazed vessels, also from Tuna, now updated by Tait, 1963. See p. 131 ad. 15 concerning the doubtful provenance Tuna)
  7. J.-L. Bovot, Informatique et Egyptologie 7, 1990, 72
    (ushebti of ‘Great of Five’ Thotmes)
  8. Taufik Boulos, Report on some excavations at Tuna, in: ASAE 10, 1910, 285-286
    (mentions excavations in the New Kingdom cemetery opposite Tuna with paypri finds, in the el-Fasaki area and in the main cemetery, called Dirwa)
  9. E. Bresciani, La stele Cat. 1908 del Museo Civico di Bologna e gli altri monumenti del primo araldo del re, scriba del re, scriba dell’esercito e scriba delle reclute, Senu, in: MDAIK 37, 1981, 85-95
    (objects from the New Kingdom cemetery, publishes the stelae in New York, mentioned in Hayes, Scepter of Egypt, II)
  10. E. Brugsch-Bey, Ein neuer satirischer Papyrus, in: ZÄS 35, 1897, 140-141
    (fragment of a satirical papyrus, possibly from the New Kingdom cemetery. See also the book of Terrace-Fischer below)
  11. M. L. Buhl, The Late Egyptian anthropoid stone sarcophagi, Kopenhagen 1959, 80-82, no. E, b 17 with fig. 42
    (Ptolemaic limestone sarcophagus BM no. 969 (47) = BM Guide, Sculpture, 1909. Correct Tana to Tuna)
  12. M. Chaban, Fouilles à Achmounein, in: ASAE 8, 1908, 222
    (naos of Nectanebos II. from Tuna)
  13. E.G. Chassinat, Séance du 11 septembre 1903, in: CRAIBL 1903, 399-401
    (mentions excavations of Gombert)
  14. E.G. Chassinat, in: Egypt Exploration Fund, Archaeological Report, London 1903-4, 31-33
    (excavations and death of Gombert 1902-1904)
  15. S. Curto, L’Antico Egitto nel Museo Egizio di Torino, Turin 1954, 236-238
    (stela N.Cat. 1640 of the scribe Thotemhat and N.Cat. 1558 of the gardien of the Thot-Tempel of Hermopolis Pa-Mescha, both apparently from the New Kingdom cemetery)
  16. G. Daressy, Notes et remarques, in: Rec. Trav. 20, 1898, 86
    (black granite sarcophagus of a high priest of Thot)
  17. G. Daressy, Un sarcophage de Tounah, in: ASAE 16, 1916, 116-120
    (granite sarcophagus of Thotmes, overseer of cattle. It is not sure that this Thotmes is the person identical with the overseeer of cattle Thotmes on ushebtis)
  18. A. Dodson, Stelae of the Middle and New Kingdoms in the Museum of Archaeology and Anthropology, University of Cambridge, in: JEA 78, 1992, 274-279
    (New Kingdom stela Cambridge 1951.554, showing Thot on a standard, probably from Tuna el-Gebel or Ashmunein)
  19. A. Fabretti – F. Rossi – V. Lanzone, Regio Museo di Torino, Torino 1882
    (numerous objects mentioning Hermopolis are finds from the New Kingdom necropolis of Tuna. Definitely from Tuna are e.g. nos. 1563.3069.3454.3488-3491.3497, etc.)
  20. F.D. Friedmann, Gifts of the Nile. Ancient Egyptian Fayence, London 1998
    (exhibition catalogue, mentioning fayence vessels attributed to Tuna, older bibliographical references included: p. 193 no. 46 with photo p. 95, p. 218 no. 92 (fayence basket) with photo p. 120, p. 223 no. 108 with photo p. 123, p. 224 no. 114 with photo p. 126, p. 225 no. 115-117 with photos p. 126-127, p. 227 no. 127 with photo p. 139)
  21. S. Gabra, Un sarcophage de Touna, in: ASAE 28, 1928, 66-79
    (sarcophagus of the Saitic High Priest Ahmose, see the article of H. Abou Seif)
  22. F. Gomaà, Chaemwese, Sohn Ramses II. und Hoherpriester von Memphis (Äg. Abh. 27), Wiesbaden 1973, 86 no. 59
    (mentions objects of Khaemwese from the ibiotapheion. A red granite statue fragment of a walking ibis with Khaemwese’s figure and titles below is stored inside the ‘magazine’ in Hermopolis, its exact provenance – Tuna, Hermopolis or Tihna ? – is unknown)
  23. F.Ll. Griffith, Egypt Exploration Fund, Archaeological Report 1902-1903, 14
    (reports the death of Gombert)
  24. W.M. van Haarlem, Corpus Antiquitatum Aegyptiacarum, Allard Pierson Museum Amsterdam (CAA), II, vol. 1-2, Sjabti’s, 1990, 253-255
    (ushebti of ‘Great of Five’ Thotirdis)
  25. W. C. Hayes, The Sceptre of Egypt, II, Cambridge 1959, 192.272.276.423.428
    (objects of New Kingdom date from Tuna, some stelae, a wooden chest and a fayence kohl tube of one of the Hermopolitan high priests named Thotmes, see the articles of Bresciani and Raven)
  26. S. Hodjash – O. Berlev, The Egyptian Reliefs and Stelae in the Pushkin Museum of Fine Arts Moscow, Leningrad 1982, 199-200, No.134
    (naos of the time of Ptolemaios X., to be attributed to Tuna, mentioning a scribe´s office, the the oracle god Trismegistos and the Agathodaimon)
  27. Hildesheim, Roemer und Pelizaeus-Museum, Suche nach Unsterblichkeit, Totenkult und Jenseitsglaube im Alten Ägypten, Catalogue Mainz 1990, T 4.19.31.32
    (a group of early Ptolemaic painted wooden funerary statues, bought together with clay figures of Christian times in Tuna el-Gebel, according to a letter of Pelizaeus from 1912. The provenance Tuna is open to discussions. Color photos see also in: Kayser, Die Ägyptischen Altertümer, plate 11 after p. 112 no 1582 and 1584, and R. Schulz – M. Seidel (editors), Ägypten, Die Welt der Pharaonen, Köln 1997, 470 fig. 89. The statues are more often illustrated, e.g. in: Hildesheim, Antike Welt im Pelizaeus-Museum, Mainz 1993, 100.101 fig. 96.97, Westerman, museum, Pelizaeus Museum Hildesheim, 105)
  28. B. Hornemann, Types of Ancient Egyptian Statuary, Kopenhagen 1951-1969, no. 62
    (sandstone ushebti of a Thotmes, Museum Toledo Ohio)
  29. L. Keimer, Ein Stelen-Fragment aus Tuna, in: MDAIK 2, 1931, 139-140, pl. 34
    (stela with ibises)
  30. L. Keimer, A Curious Cult Object of the God Thot, in: Fogg Art Museum Harvard University, Annual Report 1954-55, 10
    (apes with nuts around a small column)
  31. G. Kueny – Y. Yoyotte, Grenoble, Musée des Beaux-Arts. Collection égyptienne, no. 59-71
    (uninscribed ushebti and ushebti of Maia from Weills excavations 1912, and no. 101 a figure of Ptah-Sokar-Osiris, no. 132-134 mummy bandelettes and wooden masks, see the catalogue of P. Tresson below)
  32. J.-M. Kruchten, in: E. Gubel (editor), Van Nijl tot Schelde – Du Nil à l’Escaut, Brüssel 1991, 175 n. 204 (ushebti of ‘Great of Five’ Thotmes), n. 360.362.365 (mummy masks in the museum Mariemont, partly from Tuna)
  33. P. Lacau, Note sur les travaux de l’Institut Francais d’Archéologie du Caire (1912-1913), in: CRAIBL 1913, 517-524
    (mentions the excavations of R. Weill)
  34. N. and B. Langton, The Cat in Ancient Egypt, Cambridge 1940, 46 pl. XIV
    (New Kingdom fayence ring, „from Tuneh“)
  35. J. Leclant (editor), Ägypten. Dritter Band: Spätzeit und Hellenismus, München 1981, 204.214 and fig. 182
    (detail of the coffin of Djed-Thotefankh in Torino)
  36. G. Lefebvre, Un couvercle de sarcophage de Tounah, in: ASAE 23, 1923, 229-245
    (Cairo JdE 43098, lid of sarcophagus of Tadipakem)
  37. G. Legrain, Reseignement sur Tounah et notes sur l’emplacement probable de Tebti ou Tanis superior et de sa nécropole, in: ASAE 1, 1900, 73-80
    (survey of the area, containing also a rough drawing of the southern stela of Akhenaten near Dalge, now lost)
  38. London, British Museum, Guide to the Fourth, Fifth and Sixth Egyptian Rooms, London 1922, 144, nos. 24680.26226
    (fayence chalices of Dyn. 22, attributed to Tuna as a group, literature see also BMQ 27, no. 3-4, 477.79 and adnotations 12.13)
  39. London, Sotheby’s Sale Catalogue 10 -11, July 1989, no. 126
    (ushebti of the earlier ‘Great of Five’ Thotmes)
  40. R.A. Lunsingh Scheurleer, Egypte. Geschenk van de Nijl, Allard Pierson Museum, Amsterdam 1992, 57-58.60 fig. no. 37 (Inv. No. 8797 = CAA II, 253-255, ushebti of the ‘Great of Five’ and high priest Thotirdis), p. 60 fig. 40 (New Kingdom fayence bowl, attributed to Tuna, with literature), p. 61-67 fig. 41a-e (sarcophagus of Teuris)
  41. Louvre, Musée du Louvre, Inventaire des objets provenant des fouilles de Touna expediés du Caire au Musée du Louvre le l6 juin 1903
    (excavations of A. Gombert, Louvre E 12041-12214)
  42. MacGregor Collection = Catalogue of the MacGregor Collection of Egyptian Antiquities, auction Sotheby, London 1922
    (no. 224 glazed vessel from Tuna, today Walters Art Gallery Baltimore no. 48, 416, not seen)
  43. G. Maspero – H. Gauthier, Catalogue général des antiquites égyptiennes du Musée du Caire, no. 29307-29323, sarcophages des époques persane et ptolemaique, Cairo 1939, 79-109
    (no. 29315 sarcophagus of the Hermopolitan governor Thotirdis and no. 29316, sarcophagus of the lady and priestess Tadipakem)
  44. Lady Meux Collection = Some account of the collection of Egyptian antiquities in the possession of Lady Meux of Theobald’s Park, 2. ed., London 1896, nos. 1786-1788
    (amulets from Tuna ?)
  45. H.W. Müller, Die Ägyptische Sammlung des Bayerischen Staates, Exhibition Catalogue, October 1966, München (= Staatliche Sammlung Ägyptischer Kunst, Catalogue, 2nd edition, München 1976), 77 no. 79 with pl.
    (ÄS 31, wooden sarcophagus of Nes-Nehemetawai, daughter of Nes-Schu, probably a sister of Petosiris. A provenance from Tuna seems undoubtable)
  46. Münzen und Medaillen AG Basel, Auktion Cat. 59, 16th of June 1981, 19 (fragment of a naophor, pobably from Tuna, mentioning a ‘Great of Five’ Djed-Bastetefankh, son of Teos) New York, Sotheby’s , catalogue 18.06. 91, 1991, no. 375 (ushebti of ‘Great of Five’ Thotmes)
  47. B. Nolte, Die Glasgefäße im Alten Ägypten, MÄS 14, Berlin 1968, 113 no. 8 (glas vessel, possibly from Tuna), 116 no. 24 (Berlin 12626, probably from Tuna, with further literature)
  48. E. Otto, Zwei Bemerkungen zum Königskult der Spätzeit, in: MDAIK 15, 1957, 202.207
    (30th dyn. statue Louvre E. 18967 of the Priest, the ‘Great of Five’, ‘Prophet of the Statues’ – of king Cheperkare – Schepsirdis, son of Thotirdis)
  49. Paris, Drouot, vente Videau, catalogue 24.04.89, no. 45
    (ushebti of Chonsu-mes, probably from Tuna)
  50. Fl. Petrie, Shabtis, London 1935, pl. XXXV, no. 240
    (ushebti in the University College, London, of a Thotmes, from Tuna)
  51. F.G. Hilton Price, A Catalogue of the Egyptian Antiquities in the possession of F. G. Hilton Price, London 1897, No. 1522b (fayence lotus cup)
  52. M. J. Raven, A transom-window from Tuna el-Gebel, in: OMRO 69, 1989, 51-64
    (probably from the New Kingdom cemetery, part of the Early Ramesside tomb of the earlier ‘Great of Five’ Thotmes. Raven discusses the Thotmes ushebti and statues)
  53. G. Roeder, Catalogue general des antiquites égyptiennes, Naos, Leipzig 1914, 45-46
    (no. 70014, a naos found in a mudbrick building, with name of Pharaoh Nectanebos II.)
  54. G. Roeder, Aegyptische Inschriften aus den Staatlichen Museen zu Berlin, II, Leipzig 1924, 267-268 no. 17555
    (wooden chest of the king Aja, the reported provenance Tuna is not sure, the object was bought in Achmim, see also the catalogue Ägyptisches Museum Berlin, Staatliche Museen Preussischer Staatsbesitz, Berlin 1967, 56 no. 582)
  55. H.D. Schneider, Shabtis, An introduction to the history of ancient Egyptian funerary statuettes, part II, Leiden 1977, 5.3.1.252: ushebti of the High Priest Thotirdis (others are in Amsterdam, Allard Pierson Museum, the British Museum and other collections), 5.3.1.259: 30. Dyn. ushebti of the ‘Great of Five’ Psametikhos
  56. H.A. Schlögl – A. Brodbeck, Ägyptische Totenfiguren aus öffentlichen und privaten Sammlungen der Schweiz, Göttingen 1990, no. 50.198
    (ushebti of a Thotmes and of ‘Great of Five` Thotirdis. For the titles of Thotirdis see also de Meulenaire, in: CdE 69, 1994, 294 no. 198 and Yoyotte, in: CRAIBL 1989, 87-88)
  57. W. Seipel et alii, Ägypten. Götter, Gräber und die Kunst: 4000 Jahre Jenseitsglaube, Linz 1989, 220, no. 210
    (ushebti of ‘Great of Five’ Thotirdis = Allard Parson Mus. Amsterdam Inv. No. 9114, see Haarlem, CAA II, Amsterdam, 253-255)
  58. W. Spiegelberg, Ausgewählte Kunst-Denkmäler der ägyptischen Sammlung der Kaiser-Wilhelms-Universität, 6
    (= PM, 2, 702, fig. of a woman, 18th dyn., said to came from Tuna el-Gebel)
  59. M. Suzuki, Nariwa Town Museum, Nariwa-cho, 31.58, n. 44
    (ushebti of ‘Great of Five’ Thotmes, not seen)
  60. G.A.D. Tait, The Egyptian Relief Chalice, in: JEA 49, 1963, 93-139
    (fundamental study, summarizing also the older collections and papers of v. Bissing, Myers, Hilton Price, Wallis, etc. For Tuna and the visits of English travellers and the diary of Myers see p. 94-95. Objects see p. 104, Cat no. III: 4 fragments, 2 in New York 26.7.915, in Eton no. 155 and Berlin 14430, p. 105, Cat no. IV: Sale Collection Mac Gregor pl. 6, p. 110, Cat. no. XI: Cairo = von Bissing, Fayencegefäße no. 3774, p. 111, Cat. no. XIV: New York 26.7.971, p. 118-119, Cat. no. XIX: Eton 42, Cat. No. XX: from the Myers collection, Cat. no. XXXI: probably from Tuna, today in Straßburg 1406. For the plaquettes see p. 128, a resumée concerning the production of the chalices in Hermopolis on p. 131-138)
  61. E.L.B. Terrace – H.G. Fischer, Treasures of the Cairo Museum, London 1970, 149-152, no. 34
    (the satirical papyrus from Tuna = JdE 31199 ?, with further literature, see also Brugsch, in: ÄZ 35, 1897, 140f.)
  62. F. Tiradritti, Lingue e scritture nell’Antico Egitto, Sesh, Mailand 1999, 36
    (picture of the wooden fragment of the sarcophagus of Djed-Thotefankh)
  63. F. Tiradritti, Il capitolo 146w del Libro di Morti, in: Vicino Oriente 9, 1993, 71-106
    (uses the texts of the sarcophagus of Thotirdis CG 29315 for the reconstruction of a tomb inscription)
  64. P. Tresson, Catalogue descriptif des antiquités égyptiennes de la salle Saint-Ferriol, extrait de Bull. de l’Académie Delphinale 6. Sér. 4, 1933, 95-100.
    (nos. 112-140 from Weills excavations 1911/112, see the modern museum catalogue of Kueny-Yoyotte)
  65. I. Wallert, Der verzierte Löffel (Ägyptologische Abhandlungen 16), Wiesbaden 1967, 111
    (Lissabon, Fundacio Gulbenkian, spoon decorated with apes, with literature)
  66. H. Wallis, Egyptian Ceramic Art, (London ?), 1998
    (on p. XVII are mentioned two statuettes of Dyn. 19 from Tuna kept in the British Museum, p. 24-25 and pl. IX: a New Kingdom glazed vessel from the Myers collection, pl. XI: New Year plaquettes and rings, etc. „all from Tuna“)
  67. R. Weill, Catalogue sommaire des antiquités égyptiennes exposées au Musée Guimet provenant de l’expédition de M. Raymond Weill, campagne 1912, à Touna, Paris 1912
    (list of objects, today mostly kept in the Louvre or given to other French museums as Grenoble and the museum of Fine Arts in Lyon)
  68. R. Weill, Fouilles à Tounah et à Zaouiét el-Maietin (Moyenne Égypte), in: CRAIBL 1912, 484-490
    (summary, mentioning also the granite sarcophagus of Nes-Shu and blocks of the time of Akhenaten)
  69. R. Weill, Monuments égyptiens divers.Thotiritis de Tounah, in: Rec. Trav. 36, 1914, 90-93
    (coffin of Thotirdis, son of Schepsirdis, now in Cairo JdE 43 097, ushebti of Thotirdis)
  70. R. Weill, Quelques types de figurines funéraires des IXXe et XXe dynasties, in: Mon. Piot 25, 1921/2, 419-438
    (Ramesside granite sarcophagus of Nes-Shu, priestess of Thot, today Louvre E 11297, p. 421.423, numerous ushebti figures of Wenamun, Wennefer, the overseer of cattle Thotmes, the ‘Great of Five’ Thotmes of the time of Ramses II., another late Ramesside ‘Great of Five’ Thotmes, Hai, etc.; see also the collections of ushebti by Aubert, H. Schneider, Schlögl-Brodbeck and Petrie)
  71. Abd el Hamid Zayed, Egyptian Antiquities Cairo, Cairo 1962
    (some objects from the Albert Eid Collection are definitely from Tuna, e.g. the wooden sarcophagus of a ‘Great of Five’ no 1842, p. 4647, p. 44-47 no. 1994.1995: ibis mummies)
  72. A. Zivie, Une statue stéléphore au nom d’Imaounefer d’Hermopolis Magna, in: BIFAO 75, 1975, 321-342
    (publishes the statue of a Hermopolitan gouverneur and summarizes the French excavations 1903 and 1912).
5. Excavation reports, mainly concerning Tuna South
  1. A. Badawy, The Cemetery at Hermoupolis West, in: Archaeology 11, 1958, 117 – 122
    (report of his own excavations 1949)
  2. A. Badawy, Une campagne de fouilles dans la nécropole d’Hermoupolis-Ouest, in: Revue Archéologique I, 1960, 91-101
    (see above)
  3. L. Borchhardt, Ausgrabungen in Tell el Amarna 1912/13, in: MDOG 52, 1913, 51-54
    (excavations of Kom el-Ahmar Dirwa, i.e. in the necropolis area to the south of Petosiris, mentions also the northern mudbrick way/wall)
  4. Chronique d’Égypte, les fouilles à la nécropole d’Hermopolis, in: CdE 15, 1933, 101-102
    (mentions the 18th of Jan. 1932 as the beginning of Gabras excavations, Gabra, in: CdE 1936, 34 reports his first campaign February 1931 near Petosiris)
  5. Chronique d’Égypte, les fouilles, Hermopolis. Epoque gréco romaine, in: CdE 17, 1934, 75-76
    (Tuna excavations 1932-33)
  6. Chronique d’Égypte, les fouilles, Tounah el Gabal, in: CdE 18, 1934, 266-269
    (Tuna excavations 1933)
  7. Chronique d’Égypte, les fouilles, Touna el Gebel. Fouilles de l’Université Égyptienne, in: CdE 19/20, 1935, 283-284
    (Tuna excavations 1934)
  8. Chronique d’Égypte, les fouilles, Touna el Gebel. Fouilles de l’Université Égyptienne, in: CdE 21, 1936, p. 34-36
    (general communication Gabras)
  9. Chronique d’Égypte, Les fouilles, Touna el Gebel. Fouilles de l’Université Égyptienne 22, 1936, 393-394
    (Tuna excavations 1935)
  10. Chronique d’Egypte, les fouilles, Tounah el Gabal. Fouilles de l’Université Égyptienne, in: CdE 23/24, 1937, 393
    (Tuna excavations 1936)
  11. Chronique d’Égypte, les fouilles, Tounah el Gabal (Hermopolis Ouest). Fouilles de l’ Université Égyptienne, in: CdE 23/24, 1939, 93.278-279
    (Tuna excavations 1937/38)
  12. Chronique d’Égypte, les fouilles, Tounah el Gabal. Hermopolis Ouest, fouilles de l’Université Fouad, in: CdE 29/30, 1940, 71-72
    (Tuna excavations 1939)
  13. Chronique d’Égypte, les fouilles, Touna el Gebel – Hermopolis Ouest, in: CdE 39/40, 1945, 91-98
    (Tuna excavations from 1939 – 1944)
  14. Chronique d’Égypte, les fouilles, Touna el Gebel, in: CdE 41/42, 1946, 198
  15. Chronique d’Égypte, les fouilles, Tounah el Gebel. Fouilles de l’Université Fouad, in: CdE 43/44, 1947, 263-264
    (communication Gabras)
  16. E. Drioton, Fouilles de l’Université égyptienne, in: Journal des Savants 1940, 127-129
    (not seen)
  17. E. Drioton, in: CdE 40, 1945, 104-111
    (refers to the book of S. Gabra, Rapport sur les fouilles d’Hermopolis Ouest Touna el-Gebel)
  18. S. Gabra, Rapport préliminaire sur les fouilles de l’Université égyptienne à Touna (Hermopolis Ouest), in: ASAE 32, 1932, 56-77
    (mentions Petosiris, Isidora, Padikem, etc.)
  19. S. Gabra, Touna el-Gabal. Hermopolis Ouest. Terre d’Egypte, in: Revue Egyptienne III, 1935, 17-18
  20. S. Gabra, Fouilles de l’Université Fouad el Awal à Touna el Gebel (Hermopolis Ouest), in: ASAE 39, 1939, 483-496
    (southern cemetery and description of gallery C)
  21. S. Gabra, Le dernières découvertes des fouilles de l’Université Égyptienne à Hermopolis Ouest (Tounah-el-Gebel), in: Actes du XXe Congrès des Orientalistes, Bruxelles, 5-10 septembre 1938, Louvain 1940, 65-68
  22. S. Gabra, Récentes découvertes à Hermopolis Ouest, in: Bericht über den VI. Internationalen Kongress für Archäologie, Berlin 21.-26. August 1939, Berlin 1940, 251-254
  23. S. Gabra, Rapport sur les fouilles d’Hermoupolis Ouest (Touna el-Gebel), Cairo 1941
    (with contributions by Drioton (inscription of Padikem), Perdrizet (tombs) and Waddell (funerary epitaphs))
  24. S. Gabra, Fouilles de l’Université Fouad 1er, à Hermopolis Ouest Touna el-Gabal et Meir, saison 1946-47, In: Bulletin du Faculté des Lettres Univ. Fouad 1er, Cairo 1947, vol. IX part I, 131-134
    (see also the Arabic version of the report in the Arabic section 1947)
  25. S. Gabra, Ramble in Pharaonic and Islamic Egypt. Interparliamentary Union, Cairo Conference, April 1947, Kairo 1947
    (photo following p. 14, of the temple of Osiris-Baboon)
  26. S. Gabra, Les monuments d’Hermupolis-Ouest. La vie en province à la époque Saite. Regards sur la Méditerranée, L’Egypte Nouvelle, Caire, hiver-decembre 1947, 51-54
    (not seen)
  27. S. Gabra, Fouilles de l’Université Fouad el Awal à Hermoupolis Ouest Touna el Gebel, Kairo 1954
  28. S. Gabra, Les recherches archéologiques de l’Université Égyptienne à Tounah-el-Gebel, in: BSFE 30, 1959, 41-52
  29. H. Gautier, Les fouilles en Égypte en 1932-1933, in: RdE 1, 1933, 2289-310
    (reports the excavations near Tuna pp. 296-298)
  30. ILN = The Illustrated London News, March 4, 1933, 310-311; April 21, 1934, 598-599; June 8, 1935, 1019-1021; June 12, 1937,1089; July 2, 1938, 7-9; May 13, 1939, 838-840
    (reports about Gabras excavations with photos of the southern cemetery and the animal galleries)
  31. H. Junker – O. Menghin, Wissenschaftliche Unternehmungen in Ägypten und Nubien 1930-31, in: MDIK 2, 1932, 147
    (the excavation of the University of Cairo at ASmun !)
  32. P. Lacau, Travaux du Service des Antiquités de l’Égypte, in: CRAIBL 1920, 362-366
    (mentions also research in the ibiotapheion)
  33. J. Mellaart, Egyptische Archaeologie, Archaeologisch overzicht over de opgravingen in Egypte 1938-1946, in: JEOL 10, 1945-48, 321-325
    (refers to CdE reports and reports of the Egyptian Antiquities Service)
  34. Ch. Picard, La nécropole des animaux sacres à Hermopolis Magna, in: Revue Archéologique 2, 1938, 107-108
    (indicates the articles in ILN)
  35. R.Weill, Compte rendu de la séance du lundi 7 Mars 1949, in: BSFE 1, 1949, 15-19
6. The southern Graeco-Roman cemetery: selected finds and find groups
  1. M. F. Aubert – R. Cortopassi, Egypte romaine, art funéraire. Les antiquités égyptiennes II, Paris, Musée du Louvre, guide du visiteur, Paris 1997
    (p. 31 coffin of Shen-Ptah, p. 45 = Louvre E 12170, see also Walker-Bierbrier, cat. London, p. 45 = mask Louvre E 12048 = cat. Paris, une siècle de fouilles…, no. 336)
  2. P. Ballet, Études comparative d’ateliers d’Alexandrie et de la Chôra, in: Commerce et artisanat dans l’Alexandrie héllenistique et romaine. Actes du Colloque d’Athènes 1988, ed. J. Y. Empereur, BCH Suppl. 33, 237 with fig. 27.28
    (lists two clay figures of Hapocrates, of Eros and of a Sphinx with (uncertain) provenance Tuna. Others are from Mallawi. Lit. see also the publications of clay figurines from Perdrizet, Dunand and Ballot)
  3. S. Besques, „Nouvelles acquisitions“, in: Revue du Louvre 1973/ 4-5, 275, fig. 8
    (clay figure of Hapocrates from Tuna, today Musée du Louvre DAGR, inv. no. CA 3358 = Ballet, Études comparative d’ateliers d’Alexandrie et de la Chôra, in: BCH Suppl. 33, 237. Other figurines are labelled „from Mallawi“)
  4. E. Bayer-Niemeier, Mumienmasken, in Skulptur, Malerei, Papyri, Ägyptische Bildwerke Band III, Liebighaus-Frankfurt am Main, Melsungen 1993, 414-437
    (publication of 35 mummy masks in Frankfurt, bought in Hermopolis. The dates given for the face masks are sometimes different in comparison with the work of G. Grimm. Unpublished are cat. no. 95.107.122.128.129)
  5. F. Dunand, Religion populaire en Égypte romaine. Les terres cuites isiaques du Musée du Caire, EPRO 73, 1979, 200 no. 104 pl. L-LI and 201, no. 105 pl. LII-LIII (clay figures of two priestesses ? = Cairo JE 65455 and 65456 from Gabras excavations), 211 no. 133 with frontispice photo
    (clay figutine of Hapocrates au pot from Gabras excavations, Cairo JE 65454 = Ballet, Étude comparative d’ateliers d’Alexandrie et de la Chôra, in: BCH Suppl. 33, 237)
  6. C.C. Edgar, Catalogue général des antiquités égyptiennes du Musée du Caire nos. 33101-33285 Graeco-Egyptian Coffins, Masks and Portraits, Cairo 1905, no. 33162. 33181. 33187. 33213
    (mummy masks from Tuna)
  7. S. Gabra, Peintures à fresques et scènes peintes à Hermoupolis Ouest (Touna el-Gabel) avec la collaboration du docteur Étienne Drioton à Caire, Cairo 1954
    (see the review in: OLZ 52, 1957, 33-35)
  8. J.G. Griffiths, Eight Funerary Paintings with Judgment Scenes, in: JEA 68, 1982, 252
    (painted Roman linen cloth, probably from Tuna el-Gebel, Swansea Museum inv. nos. W 649-56)
  9. G. Grimm, Two early Imperial faience vessels from Egypt, in: Miscellanea Wilbouriana, 1, Brooklyn-New York 1972, 85f. fig. 22-24
    (faience vase MMA no. 26.7.1013 from the region of Tuna. Grimm mentions p. 82 adn. 35 two further fragments, probably from Tuna, in the Egyptian Museum Cairo, temp. reg., further four vessels in the Mallawi Museum no. 435-437.439, further some vessels, who could originate from Tuna too, in: Basel, Münzen und Medaillen AG, Sale auction 46, 28. April 1972, 81 no. 151 pl. 37 and Paris, Georges Petit, Collection A. Sambon, Sale Catalogue, 25th May 1914, 9 no. 10 with plate)
  10. G. Grimm, Kunst der Ptolemäer- und Römerzeit im Ägyptischen Museum Kairo, Mainz 1975, 24-25, nos 47-51, pl. 85-89
  11. G. Grimm, Die römischen Mumienmasken aus Ägypten. Wiesbaden 1974
    (see especially pp. 71-91)
  12. Hildesheim, Antike Welt im Pelizaeus-Museum, Pelizaeus-Museum Hildesheim, Mainz 1993, 116-177 fig. 111.112
    (mummy masks, probably from Tuna. The mummy mask Hildesheim Inv. 353 is also illustrated in: R. Schulz – M. Seidel (editors), Ägypten. Die Welt der Pharaonen, 469 no. 86)
  13. I. Kaplan, Grabmalerei und Grabreliefs der Römerzeit. Wechselwirkungen zwischen der ägyptischen und griechisch-alexandrinischen Kunst. Veröffentlichung des Instituts für Afrikanistik und Ägyptologie Wien Bnd. 86, Wien 1999, 159-165 and fig. 73-85
    (paintings in Tuna el-Gebel tomb houses, with additional materials and drawings from the expedition of the University of Trier)
  14. E.R. Knauer, Urnula faberrime cavata. Observations on a vessel used in the cult of Isis, Stuttgart-Leipzig 1995
    (interpretes scenes of the the sarcophagus of Teuris from Tuna, see Kurth, below)
  15. Dieter Kurth, Der Sarg der Teuris. Eine Studie zum römerzeitlichen Totenglauben im römerzeitlichen Ägypten (Aegyptiaca Treverensia 6), Mainz 1990
    (painted and inscribed Roman sarcophagus, today in Amsterdam)
  16. E. Lüddeckens, in: Jahrbuch 1955 der Akademie der Wissenschaften und der Literatur Mainz, 251, note 1, p. 256 note 2 and pl. 1
    (photo of Zaki Aly’s excavations)
  17. Paris, Portraits de l’Egypte Romaine, Musée du Louvre 5 octobre 1998 – 4 janvier 1999, 32-33 (no. 1 the coffin of Shen-Ptah Louvre E 12056 from the French excavations 1902-1903), 86-87 (no. 43-44, masks and coffin Louvre E 12170 and E 12168 from 1904/05) and 114-121 (masks from Tuna nos. 61-72. Only the masks no. 69.70 have Tuna as a written provenance, from the French excavations 1902-1903)
  18. K. Parlasca, Mumienportraits und verwandte Denkmäler, Wiesbaden 1966
    (see pp. 148f.: tomb of Petosiris)
  19. K. Parlasca-H. Seemann, Augenblicke, Mumienporträts und ägyptische Grabkunst aus römischer Zeit, Catalogue Frankfurt, Frankfurt 1999 (see the photos near the tomb of Petosiris p. 27-28 fig. 8.11 and, probably from Tuna, the masks no. 209.213.214-218 and no. 220, a statuette of a girl)
  20. P. Perdrizet, Les terres cuites grecques d’Ègypte de la collection Fouquet, Nancy 1921. P. mentions as (uncertain) provenance from some clay objects on p. IX and p. 58 Tounah = Thonis in the Delta (!), where Fouquet aspects the Anubieion. For Tuna see also p. 37 no. 118 (statuette of Hapocrates); p. 54 f., no. 157, pl. V (a clay figurine of Hapocrates from = Ballet, Étude comparative d’ateliers d’Alexandrie et de la Chôra, in: BCH Suppl. 33, 237); p. 79 no. 189 (Hapocrates au pot = S. Besques, „Nouvelles acquisitions“, in: Revue du Louvre, 275 fig. 8, inv. no. CA 3358 = Ballet, loc. cit., 237); then p. 96 no. 43 (fragment of a lamp) and p. 96 no. 245 pl. LVII (clay figurine of Eros = Catalogue Paris, Drouot, Vente Collection Roger Munier, 15/11/88, no. 41 = Ballet, lo. cit., in: BCH Suppl. 33, 237)
  21. J. Quaegebeur, Aspecten van de Romeinse aanwezigheid in het Land van de Farao’s, in: Phoenix 26,2, 1980, 106-131
    (esp. p. 121-123, photos of Roman tombs and their decoration)
  22. J. Schwartz, Hermeracles, in: ASAE 45, 1947, 37-49
    (clay seals showing Thot-Schu/Hermeracles, see the resumée in: RHR 133, 1948, 232-233)
  23. W. Seipel (editor), Bilder aus dem Wüstensand. Mmienportraits aus dem Ägyptischen Museum Kairo, Mailand-Wien 1998, 80 no. 12
    (mask from Tuna = Kairo JE 58507 = Grimm, 1974, 40.81 fig 38.1)
  24. A. Stoppelaere, Dégradations et restaurations des peintures murales Égyptiennes, in: ASAE 40, 1940, 941 – 950
    (photo plate CXLIII from maison 21)
  25. Th. K. Thomas, Greeks or Copts: documentary and other evidence for artistic patronage, in: Life in a Multi-Cultural Society, ed. J.H. Johnson, Chicago 1992, 317-320
    (mentions p. 319-20 the tomb of Isidora)
  26. F. Tiradritti (editor), The Treasures of the Egyptian Museum, Cairo 1999, 386 (mummy mask = CG 33187); 408 ( painting with a scene of Oedipus = JE 63609)
  27. S. Walker – M. Bierbrauer, Ancient Faces: Mummy Portraits from Roman Egypt, London 1997, 148 no. 165
    (Louvre E. 12170 and E 12174, color photo of mummy mask with part of coffin = Grimm, Mumienmasken, 121 no. 185)
7. The tomb of Petosiris
  1. F. W. von Bissing, Die Datierung des griechisch-ägyptischen Grabes von Mellaui, in: OLZ 26, 1923, 1-4
    (dates Petosiris ca. 305 BC)
  2. F. W. von Bissing, Lettere al Prof. Breccia, Zu alexandrinischen Denkmälern, in: BSAA 28, 1933, 183-192
    (dates the tomb of Petosiris)
  3. W. Beyerlin (editor), Religionsgeschichtliches Textbuch zum Alten Testament, Grundrisse zum Alten Testament, Göttingen 1975, Band 1, 88
    (German translation by H. Brunner of Petosiris, inscr. 127)
  4. H. Brunner, Die Weisheitsbücher der Ägypter, Zürich-München 1991, 409-13
    (German translation of Petosiris, inscr. 127.61.116)
  5. E. Brunner-Traut, Lebensweisheit der Alten Ägypter, Freiburg 1985, 66-71
    (eclectic German translation of different tomb inscriptions)
  6. S. Cauville, 77 génies de Pharbaithos, in: BIFAO 78, 1992, 115-133
    (see pp. 122-123, comparable figures are also found on unpublished relief blocks inside the galleries)
  7. E. Cavaignac, La date du tombeau de Pétosiris, in: REA 2, 1929, 56-57
    (dates Petosiris in the beginning of the reign of Ptolemaios I.)
  8. J. Capart, Le tombeau de Petosiris, in: Le Soir, 14.3. 1927
    (not seen)
  9. J.P. Corteggiani, L’Egypte des Pharaons au Musée du Cairo, Paris 1979.1986
    (English: The Egypt of the Pharaos in the Cairo Museum, 1987, no. 112 (coffin of Petosiris))
  10. R. Drenkhahn, Die Handwerker und ihre Tätigkeiten im Alten Ägypten, Wiesbaden 1976
    (scenes of daily life)
  11. A. Eggebrecht (editor), Das Alte Ägypten. 3000 Jahre Geschichte und Kultur des Pharaonenreiches, München 1984, 386
    (tomb of Petosiris)
  12. J-C. Goyon, Les dieux-gardiens et la genèse des temples. Les soixante-dix-sept dieux-gardiens de Pharbaethos, Cairo 1985, I, 234.249-253
    (tomb of Petosiris, pillar inscriptions, etc.)
  13. W. Huß, Der makedonische König und die ägyptischen Priester (Historia. Einzelschriften 85), Stuttgart 1994, 137-138
    (Petosiris is at least in his feelings a hidden opponent of the Greek! Other literature with short remarks to Petosiris’attitude against foreign rulers is mentioned p. 148 adn. 433. S. also Pfrommer, 1999, 45-47)
  14. J. Leclant (editor), Ägypten. Dritter Band: Spätzeit und Hellenismus, München 1981, fig. 54.55.71-73.75.155.218
    (scenes of the pronaos, fig. 57: detail of the sarcophagus of Petosiris in Cairo, fig. 306: funeral chariot and 359 plan of Petosiris tomb), corresponds to the French edition ‘Les Pharaons. L’Égypte du crépuscule, Paris 1980’)
  15. G. Lefebvre, Le tombeau de Petosiris, in: ASAE 20, 1920, 41-121
    (preliminary report)
  16. G. Lefebvre, Textes du tombeau de Petosiris, in: ASAE 20, 1920, 207-236
    (§ I, coffins of Petosiris and Djedthotefankh in the museums of Cairo and Torino, § II, inscr. 82 and inscr. of Si-Shu)
  17. G. Lefebvre, Un bas relief grec dans un tombeau égyptien, in: Mon. Piot 25, 1921/2, 211-227 (scenes from the tomb of Petosiris concerning the sacrifice of the bull)
  18. G. Lefebvre, Textes du tombeau de Petosiris, in: ASAE 22, 1922, 33-48 (§ VII, inscr. 59 and 62). 139-156 (§ VIII, inscr. 61)
  19. G. Lefebvre, Légendes de scènes agricoles au tombeau de Pétosiris, in: Recueil d’études égyptologiques dédiées à la mémoire de Jean-Francois Champollion, Paris 1922
  20. G. Lefebvre, Le tombeau de Petosiris, 3 vol., Cairo 1923-24
    (fundamental publication of the texts)
  21. G. Lefebvre, Légendes de scènes agricoles au tombeau de Petosiris, in Recueil d’études égyptologiques dédiées à la mémoire de Jean-Francois Champollion, Paris 1922, 75-92
  22. G. Lefebvre, Égyptiens et Hébreux, in: Revue Biblique 31, 1922, 481-488
  23. M. Lichtheim, Ancient Egyptian Literature III, Berkeley 1980, 44-54
    (Petosiris inscr. 56, 81, 116, 127)
  24. B. Menu, Le tombeau de Pétosiris, nouvel examen, in: BIFAO 94, 1994, 311-327
    (Menu dates Petosiris after Alexander the Great)
  25. B. Menu, Le tombeau de Pétosiris (2). Maât, Thot et le droit, in: BIFAO 95, 1995, 281-295
  26. B. Menu, Les carrières des Égyptiens à l’étranger sous les dominations perses: les critères de justification, leur évolution et leurs limites, in: Transeuphratène 9, 1995, 81-90
    (pp. 87-90 concerning Petosiris)
  27. B. Menu, Le tombeau de Pétosiris (3). Culpabilité et responsibilité, in: BIFAO 96, 1996, 343-357
  28. B. Menu, L’élite provinciale à l’arrivée d’Alexandre. Les inscriptions du tombeau de Pétosiris. In Egypte, Afrique et Orient 6, 1997, 28-30
  29. B. Menu, Recherches sur l’histoire juridique, économique et sociale de l’ancienne Égypte.II, Cairo 1998, 261-263
    (compares Petosiris and Djed-her-pa-sched from Athribis)
  30. B. Menu, Le tombeau de Pétosiris (4). Le souverain de L’Égypte, in BIFAO 98, 1998, 247-262
    ( Petosiris is considered to belong to a group of priests who urged Alexander the Great to take over the egyptian role of the king)
  31. K. Michalowski, Ägypten, Kunst und Kultur, Freiburg 1969, fig. 130 (pronaos scene) and fig. 880 (tomb plan),
    (correponds to the French edition, L’art de l’ancienne Ègypte, Paris 1968)
  32. P. Montet, Note sur le tombeau dc Petosiris pour servir à 1’histoire des Perses en Egypte, in: Rev. Arch. 23, 1926, 161-181
  33. S. Naqaten, Petosiris, in: Lexikon der Ägyptologie Bd. 4, Wiesbaden 1982, Sp. 995-998 s.v.
  34. S. Naqaten, Untersuchungen zu den Inschriften des Petosiris-Grabes in Tuna el-Gebel,
    (not seen, unpublished Dissertation, University of Trier, publication in preparation)
  35. M. Pfrommer, Alexandria. Im Schatten der Pyramiden, Mainz 1999, 28-29. 45-47
    (fig. 45 and 46 a.b. tomb of Petosiris and its representatition of the funeral chariot, discusses the Greek and Persian influence in Ptolemaic times)
  36. É. Suys, Vie de Petosiris, grand prêtre de Thot à Hermopolis-la-grande, Brüssel 1927
  37. É. Suys, La vie quotidienne dans l’Égypte pharaonique dans l’intimité, in: Études 190, 1927, 342-355
    (not seen)
  38. E. Otto, Die biographischen Inschriften der ägyptischen Spätzeit, Probleme der Ägyptologie 2, Leiden 1954, 17-184
    (Petosiris inscr. 45, 58b, 58c, 61a, 65, 81, 116, 127)
  39. Ch. Picard, Les influences étrangères au tombeau du Petosiris: Grèce ou Perse ?, in: BIFAO 30, 1931, 201-227
  40. M. Saleh – H. Sourouzian, Die Hauptwerke im Ägyptischen Museum Kairo, Mainz 1986, no. 260
    (color photos of the Petosiris coffin, JdE 46592)
  41. J. Schmitz, Impressionen der Wirklichkeit (Petosiris, Inschr. Nr. 61, 31-41), in: CdE no. 67, 1992, 41-55
  42. R. Schulz – M. Seidel (editors), Ägypten. Die Welt der Pharonen, Köln 1997 (editions in German, English and other languages), 315-316.318 (by J. Willeitner, with color photos of the tomb of Petosiris fig. 50, pronaos decoration fig. 51.52, sarcophagus of Petosiris fig. 53)
  43. W. Spiegelberg, Eine neue Spur des Astrologen Petosiris (Sitzungsberichte der Akademie der Wissenschaften Heidelberg), 1922, 3-8
    (It can’t be proven that the astronomer Petosiris is identical with Petosiris of Tuna).
  44. H. Sternberg, in Orakel, Rituale, Bau und Votivinschriften, Lieder und Gebete, Texte aus der Umwelt des Alten Testaments, Gütersloh 1988-91, II, 529-534
    (translation of Petosiris inscr. 127, 81)
  45. A. Théodoridés, La condition humaine en Egypte d’après les inscriptions du tombeau de Petosiris, in: Acta Orientalia Belgica VI, 1991, 83-116
  46. C. Thiers, Civils et militaires dans les temples. Occupation illicite et expulsion, in: BIFAO 95, 1995, 504.511
    (interpretation of inscr. 61, l. 18-20, 21, l. 4-5 and 81, l. 60-68)
  47. C. Vandersleyen, Das alte Ägypten, Propyläen Kunstgeschichte, Berlin 1985, 203-205, no. 95, 327. 332-333
    (photos of Petosiristomb)
  48. B. van de Walle, Petosiris, grand prêtre d’Hermopolis-la-Grande, in: La Revue catholique des idées et des faits 7, no. 32, 1927, 9-12
    (not seen)
8. The tombs of Padikem and Djed-Thotefankh
  1. E. Drioton – H.W. Fairman, Cryptographie ou pages sur le développement de l’alphabet en Égypte ancienne, ed. Dr. Dia’ Abou-Ghazi (Supplement ASAE no. 28), Cairo 1992, 159-161
    (aenigmatic inscription from the tomb of Padikem, see Gabra, 1941)
  2. S. Gabra, Rapport préliminaire sur les fouilles de 1’Université égyptienne à Touna (Hermopolis Ouest), in: ASAE 32, 1932, 72-77
    (tomb of Padikem, objects see JdE Cairo nos. 58389-58427)
  3. S. Gabra, Monument funéraire de Padykem et sa familie, maison funéraire No. 21, Cairo 1941
    (from his tomb are in the museum of Mallawi cat. no. 133, a lady’s mask, and no. 564, his sarcophagus, see also the following paper)
  4. S. Gabra, Rapport sur les fouilles d’Hermoupolis Ouest (Touna el-Gebel), Cairo 1941
    (see esp. pp. 29-37 by E. Drioton concerning the aenigmatic inscription)
  5. S. Gabra – Émile Drioton, Peintures à fresques et scènes peintes à Hermopolis Ouest (Touna el-Gebel), Cairo 1954, Tf. 1
    (photo of Djed-Thotefankh)
  6. M. Sabottka, Tuna el-Gebel – Grab des Djed-Thot-iw-ef-ankh. Vorbericht, in: ASAE 69,
    1983, 141-151
    (reexvacvations of the University of Trier)
9. The great temple of Thot (Hermaion of Tuna-South)
  1. A. Badawy, Le grand temple gréco-romain à Hermoupolis Ouest, in: CdE No. 62, 1956, 257-266
    (remains of the southern Roman temple)
  2. A. Badawy, Au grand temple d’Hermoupolis-Ouest: 1’installation hydraulique, in: Revue Archéologique 48, 1956, 140-154
    (description of the Roman saqqiya – water-wheel and the well)
  3. B. Gessler-Löhr, Die heiligen Seen ägyptischer Tempel (HÄB 21), Hildesheim 1983, 469
    (the Nymphaion of the great temple is supposed to be a basin for sacred ibises)
  4. D. Kessler, Der Serapeumsbezirk und das Serapeum von Tuna el-Gebel, in: Lingua Restituta Orientalis, Festschrift Assfalg, Wiesbaden 1990, 183 – 189
    (the site of the great temple becomes a Greek Serapeum, the ancient village corresponds to the greek Serapeon kome)
10. The area of the ibiotapheion : monographies and comprehensive papers
  1. M. A. A. Nur El-Din, Report on new demotic texts from Tuna el-Gebel, in: Life in a Multi Cultural Society, ed. J. H. Johnson, Chicago 1992, 253-254
    (ibis sarcophagus inscriptions)
  2. Abd el-Halim Nur Ed-Din – D. Kessler, Das Priesterhaus am Ibiotapheion von Tuna el-Gebel, in: MDAIK 52, 1996, 194-221
    (preliminary report, containing also a map of the site)
  3. J. Boessneck (editor), Tuna el Gebel I. Die Tiergalerien (HÄB 27), Hildesheim 1987
    (pp. 1-36 archaeological report by D. Kessler, pp. 37-372 zooarchaeological report by J. Boessneck – A. von den Driesch)
  4. C. Gaillard – G. Daressy, La faune momifiée de l’antique Égypte (CG 29501-29733.29751-29834), Cairo 1905
    (ibis mummies from Tuna el-Gebel s. CG 29561.29562)
  5. Ph. Derchain, Zwei Kapellen des Ptolemäus I. Soter in Hildesheim (Zeitschrift des Museums zu Hildesheim, Neue Folge Heft 13, 1961), Hildesheim 1961
    (see now the final publication by D. Kessler, Tuna el-Gebel II)
  6. P. Dorman, The registry of the photographic archives of the Epigraphic Survey, Chicago 1995, 186
    (list of negatives concerning the astronomical ceilings of the subterranean chambers in Gallery C)
  7. A. von den Driesch, Affenhaltung und Affenverehrung in der Spätzeit des Alten Agypten, in: Tierärztliche Praxis 21, Stuttgart – New York 1993, 95-101
  8. A. von den Driesch, The Keeping and Worshipping of Baboons during the Later Phase in Ancient Egypt, in: Sartoniana 6, Gent 1993, 15-36
  9. A. von den Driesch – J. Boessneck, Krankhaft veränderte Skelettreste von Pavianen aus altägyptischer Zeit, in: Tierärztliche Praxis 13, 1985, 367-372
  10. A. von den Driesch – D. Kessler, Tiermumien aus dem altägyptischen Friedhof von Tuna el-Gebel, in Einsichten, Forschung an der Ludwig-Maximilians-Universität München 1, 1994, 31-34
  11. A. Erman, Ausführliches Verzeichnis der aegyptischen Alterthümer und Gipsabgüsse, Berlin2 1899
    (containing the finds of Joseph Passalacqua, registered under Schmun = el-Ashmunein: no. 742 the human ancephalic, no. 765 ibis jar, no. 6947 ibis mummy, etc.)
  12. S. Gabra, Fouilles de l’Université Fouad el-Awal à Touna el Gebel (Hermopolis Ouest), in: ASAE 39, 1939, 483- 496
    (description of galleries C and D pp. 489-496)
  13. S. Gabra, Aspects du culte des animaux à Hermopolis-Ouest, in: BIE 25, 1943, 237-244
  14. G. Grimm, Verbrannte Pharaonen ?, in: Antike Welt 28, 1997, 233-249
    (see pp. 239-241 with photos of relief blocks of Ptolemaios I., recently stolen from a chamber in G-C-C, now in Trier)
  15. J. S. Karig, Einige Bemerkungen zu den ptolemäischen Reliefs in Hildesheim, in: ZÄS 88, 1962, 17-24
    (corrects the publication of Ph. Derchain).
  16. D. Kessler, Die Galerie C von Tuna el-Gebel, in: MDAIK 39, 1983, 107-124
    (preliminary report)
  17. D. Kessler, Die Galerie C von Tuna el-Gebel (Vorbericht), in: ASAE 70, 1984-85, 247-251
    (short preliminary report)
  18. D. Kessler, Tuna el-Gebel II, Die Paviankultkammer G-C-C-2, mit einem Beitrag zu den Funden von Hans-Ulrich Onasch, (HÄB 43) Hildesheim 1998
  19. D. Kessler – Abd el Halim Nureddin, Der Tierfriedhof von Tuna el-Gebel, in Antike Welt, 3, 1994, 252-265
    (description of the excavations until 1994)
  20. D. Kessler, Spitzmaus und Ichneumon im Tierfriedhof von Tuna el-Gebel, in: Papers in memory of Mohammed Moursi (Cairo, in print)
  21. D. Kessler – Abd el-Halim Nur el-Din, Ein Tierkäfig am Tierfriedhof von Tuna el-Gebel, Mittelägypten, in: Historia animalium ex ossibus, Festschrift für A. von den Driesch, Rahden 1999, 211-224 (animal cage in the annex building of the temple of Osiris-baboon))
  22. J. Leclant, Fouilles et travaux en Égypte et au Soudan, in Orientalia 49, 1980, 371 (ibiotapheion, campagne 1979), 51, 1982, 440-441 (campagne 1980), 57, 1988, 340 (campagne 1987); 60, 1991, 200-201 (campagne 1989); 62, 1993, 221 (campagne 1991); 63, 1994, 394-396 (campagne 1992/93); 64, 1995, 272-273 (campagne 1993)
  23. L. C. Lortet – C. Gaillard, La faune momifiée de l’ancienne Égypte, Archive du musée d’histoire naturelle de Lyon, Lyon 1903-1909
    (animal mummies from Tuna are sometimes noted under ‘Roda’ or ‘Hagg Qandil’)
  24. Naguib Michail, ‘badat Tut fi Hermubulis al gharbiya (the Cult of Thot in Hermopolis West, in arabic), dissertation Cairo 1943
    (details of Gabras excavations)
  25. A.G. Nerlich – F. Parsche – A. v. den Driesch – U. Löhrs, Osteopathological findings in mummified baboons from Ancient Egypt, in: International Journal of Osteoarchaeology 3, 1993, 189-198
  26. O. Neugebauer – R. A. Parker, Egyptian Astronomical Texts, III Text, London 1969
    (ceilings of the baboon chambers G-C-A-28; G-C-A-31; G-C-B-2; G-C-C-2)
  27. J. Passalacqua, Catalogue raisonné et historique des antiquités découvertes en Egypt, Paris 1826
  28. Th. Pettigrew, A history of Egyptian mummies and an account of the worship and embalming of the sacred animals by the Egyptians, London 1834
    (mentions p. 184 the human mummy from the galleries, found by Passalacqua and examined 1926 by Geoffrey St. Hilaire)
  29. W. Peek, Splendors of Ancient Egypt, Detroit Institute of Arts, Ann Arbor 1997, 46-47
    (color photos of four of the blocks Ptolemaios’ I. from Hildesheim, originally from the chamber G-C-C-2)
  30. G. Robins, Proportion and style in Ancient Egyptian Art, Austin 1994, 163.204-210
    (grid system and photos of some blocks of the entrance chapel of Ptolemaios I.)
  31. H. J. Thissen, Demotische Inschriften aus den Ibisgalerien in Tuna el-Gebel, in: Enchoria 18, 1991, 107-113
    (selection of demotic inscriptions collected 1979-1987)
11. Papers concerning single finds from the animal galleries
  1. Basel (ed. H. Schlögl), Geschenk des Nils. Aegyptische Kunstwerke aus Schweizer Besitz, Basel 1978, 80 no. 310 with photo
    (wooden part of a coffin of the baboon Djed-Thotefanch, definitely from Tuna, see also below H.W. Müller, Ägyptische Kunstwerke, Sammlung Kofler, MÄS 5, no. A 186)
  2. L. Bongrani Fanfoni, Due elementi lignei di sarcofagi di babbuini, in: Oriens Antiquus 17,
    1978, 197-198
    (two lid inscriptions containing the famous Nut spell of the Pyramid Texts).
  3. S. Curto, L’Egitto antico nelle collezioni dell’ Italia settentrionale, Museo Civico Bolgona,
    31 ottobre – 3 dicembre 1961, Bologna 1961, 93 no. 86 pl. 47
    (limestone slab, probably from Tuna, which once closed a baboon burial)
  4. M.-L. Buhl, A Hundred Masterpieces from the Ancient Near East, Kopenhagen 1974, 59-60
    (Kopenhagen nat. Museum Inv. 14392, statue of walking ibis, gilt wood and bronze, ‘found in the necropolis of Touneh’)
  5. Dorotheum, Wien, Katalog ‘Ausgrabungen, Auktion 19. Okt. 1995 Palais Dorotheum’, Wien 1996, no. 122
    (small painted wooden sarcophagus of a shrew, probably from the northern part of the Ptolemaic gallery B)
  6. Essen, Exhibition Catalogue: 5000 Jahre aegyptischer Kunst, 25. Mai-27. August in Villa Hügel, Essen 1961, no. 227
    (a squatting bronze ibis, probably from Tuna. No. 228 from Cairo, JdE 71971 with uncertain provenance, shows the walking ibis with Maat in front)
  7. S. Gabra, Coudée votive de Touna el-Gebel Hermopolis Ouest. La Khemenow pa Meket des Égyptiens, in: MDAIK 24, 1969, 129-135
    (one of the pieces of Amenophis III., who may have built the first necropolis temple near the village of Tuna)
  8. R. Germer, Das Geheimnis der Mumien: Ewiges Leben am Nil, Exhibition Catalogue Roemer- und Pelizaeus-Museum Hildesheim 22. Juni-9. November 1997, München-New York 1997, 59 fig. 53
    (Hildesheim, LH 15, a typical gilded ibis head and peak torn off from an ibis mummy. LH 9,10 fig. 52, two ibis mummies, can be attributed to Tuna too)
  9. B. Gessler-Löhr, in: Antike Welt 22, 1991, 60 and Fig.1
    (photo of a gilded wooden head of an ibis from an Ptolemaic ibis mummy; similar pieces are in different museums and in private collections, e.g. in New York, Boston, Paris, Lyon, Hildesheim)
  10. V. Girgis, A new strategos of the Hermopolite Nome, in: MDAIK 20, 1965, 121
    (an ibis jar, mentioning Thot, the thrice great god)
  11. G. Grimm, Kunst der Ptolemäer- und Römerzeit im Ägyptischen Museum Kairo, Mainz 1975, 27, nos 68.108
    (fayence bowl, dated to the Ptolemaic time but claimed to come from the tomb of Ankhhor)
  12. Hildesheim, Im Reich der Pharaonen, Roemer- und Pelizaeus-Museum Hildesheim, 29. Mai-15. September 1979, Mainz 1979, no. 187
    (exhibition catalogue; the block of the time of Ptolemaios I. belongs to the chapel G-C-A-31 of the baboon Thotirdis, see Ph. Derchain, zwei Kapellen des Ptolemaios I. Soter, 21, fig. 16. Page 33 contains a photo of the southern cemetery and the great temple)
  13. Hildesheim, Antike Welt im Pelizaeus-Museum, Pelizaeus-Museum Hildesheim, Mainz 1993, 94, fig. 91
    (color photos of relief blocks Ptolemaios I.)
  14. E. Iversen, Canon and proportions in Egyptian Art, Warminster 1975
    (relief blocks Ptolemaios I. from Hildesheim, see table XXV pl. 24 and table XXVI, pl. 25)
  15. H. Kayser, Im Reich des Osiris. Eine Führung durch die Ausstellung ägyptischer Altertümer im Pelizaeus-Museum zu Hildesheim, Hildesheim 1949, 25 fig. 8 ( detail from G-C-C-2, scene 12)
  16. H. Kayser, Die Ägyptischen Altertümer im Roemer-Pelizaeus-Museum in Hildesheim, Hildesheim 1967, 115 no. 1883, Fig. 88 and no. 1898, color plate 12 (detail from a block belonging to G-C-A-31)
  17. A. Kitchen, Catalogue of the Egyptian Collection in the National Museum, Rio de Janeiro, Warminster 1990, 1, no. 70
    (demotic inscribed ibis coffin given to king Dom Pedro I. of Brazil)
  18. Ch. Kuentz, Bassins et tables d’offrandes, in: BIFAO 81, 1981, 262-263
    (fragment of an offering table from Tuna)
  19. A.-P. Leca, Die Mumien, Zeugen ägyptischer Vergangenheit, Düsseldorf-Wien 1982, 208-212 (German edition of a widely sold popular book as an example for others, describing also the ibiotapheion of Tuna, following Gabras written memoirs, and containing some mistakes and fictions. Similar B. Brier, Egyptian Mummies, New York 1994, who mentions Tuna only, but concentrates on informations about Saqqara)
  20. London, Charles Ede Ltd, sale catalogue, Small sculpture from Ancient Egypt, London, 11 (date?) no. 13: (small fragment of Ptolemaic limestone relief, probably decoration of a baboon’s chamber), no. 50 (wooden and gilded ibis head), no. 51 (wooden panel)
  21. London, Catalogue of the remaining part of the valuable collection of Egyptian antiquities…, by Robert de Rustafjaell, London 1913, 66 (fayence figure of Thot)
  22. Luzern, Ars Antiqua, Antike Kunstwerke, auction may 1959, no. 15-18
    (bronze figures, ptolemaic stela, etc. reputedly from Hermopolis, but maybe originating all from the galleries)
  23. Luzern, Ars Antiqua, Antike Kunstwerke, Auktion III, April 1962, no. 12.15
    (bronze figures of Harpocates and ibis, said to be from Tuna)
  24. Marseille, Musées de Marseille, Cahier du musée d’archéologie mediterraneénne. La collection égyptienne, guide du visiteur, Marseille, without date, 14 (ibis from Tuna, see Pierini 1991)
  25. H.W. Müller, Ägyptische Kunstwerke, Kleinfunde und Glas in der Sammlung E. und M. Kofler-Truniger, Luzern, Berlin 1964, 128f. with pl. (wooden panel of a baboon coffin chest, mentioning not a person but the name of a baboon Thotefankh, undoubtedly from Tuna el-Gebel)
  26. O. White Muscarella, Ancient Art: The Norbert Schimmel Collection, Mainz 1974, no. 118
    (wooden panel of a shrine showing two baboons adoring a djed-pillar, probably from Tuna)
  27. Mysliwiec, Royal portraiture of the Dynasties XXI – XXX, Mainz 1988, 67 pl. LXX a.b (detail photos of the baboon chest of Darius I., see below)
  28. K. Mysliwiec, Un naos de Darius – roi d’Egypte, in: Near Eastern Studies (Festschrift Takahito Mikasa, Bulletin of the Eastern Culture Center in Japan), Wiesbaden 1971, 221-246
    (wooden naos Darius I., today Mallawi Museum Cat. no. 200, used for a baboon burial, and bronze group Mallawi Museum Cat. no. 196)
  29. New York, Ibis Gallery, Therianthropomorphic gods and their lordly worshippers in Ancient Egyptian Art, sale catalogue New York 1991
    (wooden and gilded head of an ibis and other objects from the ibiotapheion)
  30. Paris, Drouot, 7-8 octobre 1996, 41 no. 257 (gilded wooden ibis head from the galleries)
  31. Paris, gallery ‘à la reine margot’, liste de prix, Paris 1996, Mémoire d’Egypte, no. 13
    (wooden and gilded ibis beaks, definitely from gallery B in Tuna)
  32. G. Pierini, Acquisitions, Marseille, Musée de la Vieille Charité, in: Revue du Louvre 2, 1991, 88
    (ibis sarcophagus of a sitting ibis, made of silver and wood, probably from Tuna. See also A. K. Bowman, Egypt after the Pharaohs, California 1986, 182 no. 111)
  33. E.T. Riefstahl, A Sacred Ibis, in: Brooklyn Museum Bulletin 11/1, 1949, 5-9
    (sitting ibis, silver and wood, probably from Tuna. Literature before 1989 and a color photo see now the catalogue written by R. Fazzini et alii, Ancient Egyptian Art in the Brooklyn Museum, New York 1989, no. 91)
  34. R.K. Ritner, An unusual offering table in Dallas, in Acta Demotica. Acts of Fifth International Conference for Demotists, Pisa 1993, in: EVO 17, 1994, 265-273
    (Dallas 146.1990, an offering table mentioning a baboon Djed-her-pa-men, known also from a false-door slab of the Tuna catacombs)
  35. M. Saleh – H. Sourouzian, Die Hauptwerke aus dem Ägyptischen Museum Kairo, Mainz 1986, no. 256 (JdE 71972, bronze and wooden figure of sitting ibis in front of Maat, from the galleries)
  36. C. Van Siclen, An illustrated checklist for Mummies, Myths and Magic, VA 6, 1990, 27
    (mentions a wooden coffin in the shape of a baboon and an statue of Thot in a private collection, probably from Tuna el-Gebel)
  37. E. Teeter, Two objects inscribed for Djedhor, in: JEA 76, 1990, 202-205
    (a Ptolemaic bronze statuette of Thot in Seattle Art Museum no. 55.164 – published already by E. Teeter, Egyptian Art in the collection of the Seattle Art Museum, Seattle 1988, no. 10 – of the Hermopolitan temple doorkeeper Teos, is probably from Tuna. The Brooklyn mirror no. 52.73, mentioning the same person, has a forged decoration)
  38. Cl. Traunecker, Un exemple de rite de substitution: une stèle de Nectanébo Ier, in: Cahiers de Karnak VII, 1978-1981, Paris 1982, 343
    (cartonnage of an ibis sarcophagus from Tuna)
  39. el-Hussein Zaghloul, An Ancient Egyptian Pyramid Text on two wooden fragments from the Mallawi Museum, in: MDAIK 50, 1994, 307-308
    (compare the article of Bongrani Fanfoni)
  40. W. Westendorf, Kunst im Bild. Das Alte Ägypten, Baden-Baden 1968, 207
    (Inv. no. 1957.83, sitting ibis in front of Maat, probably from Tuna = I. Woldering, Meisterwerke des Kestner-Museums zu Hannover, Honnef 1961, no. 28 = I. Woldering, Ägypten, Die Kunst der Pharaonen, Baden-Baden 1962, no. 72)
  41. Westermann, museum, Pelizaeus Museum, Hildesheim, Braunschweig 1979, 56-61
    (by D. Kessler, color photo of scene 8, block from G-C-A-31 and entrance to gallery B)
  42. I. Woldering, Kestner-Museum 1889-1964, in : Hannoversche Geschichtsblätter Neue Folge 18, Heft 2/4, 57 no. 32 (statuette of standing Thot) and p. 58 no. 33 (the sitting ibis inv. no. 1957.83, see above)
12. The oracle inscriptions and other papyri
  1. M. el-Amir – E. Lüddeckens, Ergänzungen zur Liste der eponymen Priester, in: Enchoria 3, 1973, 1-4
    (details of the family archive from Tuna)
  2. G.R. Hughes, A demotic letter to Thot, in: JNES 17, 1958, 1-12
    (demotic petition of an employee of the ibis association)
  3. G.R. Hughes, A demotic plea to Thot in the library of G. Michaelides, in: JEA 54, 1968, 176-182
    (linen inscription, probably Persian time, BM 73785)
  4. G.R. Hughes, The cruel father, in Studies in Honor of John A. Wilson, Chicago 1969, 43-54
    (official petition to the Ibis, Falcon and Baboon, the provenance Tuna is not sure)
  5. U. Kaplony-Heckel, Neue Demotische Orakelfragen, in: Forschungen und Berichte, Staatliche Museen zu Berlin 14, 1972, 79-90
    (small papyri, mentioning the god Teephibis, see the article of Zauzich in: Enchoria 4,163)
  6. U. Kaplony-Heckel, Demotika in Mallawi, in: GM 89, 1986, 55-60
    (mentions an unpublished bulk of 11 demotic papyri, partly now edited by Zaghlul, and other unpublished papyri, probably from the catacombs, like Brussels E 8232. Oracle matters are found in the papyrus fragment Cat. Museum Mallawi No. 484 and the linen inscription Cat. No. 489)
  7. A.G. Migahid, Demotische Briefe an Götter. Ein Beitrag zur Kenntnis des religiösen Brauchtums im alten Ägypten, Dissertation Würzburg 1986
    (containing oraccler papyri, e.g. P. BM 73782, 73784, 73786 ex collection Michelides)
  8. J.D. Ray, The complaint of Heriu, in: RdE 29, 1977, 97-116
    (Pap. Louvre E 3333 and E 3334, mentioning an embalmer Heriu, responsible for the ibises north of Hermopolis, but see the corrections of the article by Zauzich, in: Enchoria 9, 1979, 121-124)
  9. E. Lüddeckens, Ein demotischer Urkundenfund in Tuna el-Gebel mit einer genealogischen Skizze, in: Akten des XIII. Internationalen Papyrologenkongresses Marburg 1971, MBP 66, Marburg 1974, 235-239
    (unpublished papyri from an archive of wab priests dating from 191-162 BC)
  10. E. Lüddeckens, Frühdemotische Inschrift eines Tongefäßes in Berlin, in: Enchoria 1, 1971, 1-8
    (ex collection G. Michaelides, mentioning a toponym ‘place of the sand’)
  11. S. Pernigotti, Greci in Egitto e Greci d’Egitto, in: Ocnus I, 1993, 125-137
    (mentions the P. Mallawi 480)
  12. S. Pernigotti, Les Rapports entre les Grecs et l’Égypte à l’époche saite: aspects juridiques et institutionelles, in: Méditerranes 6/7, 1966, 87-101
    (mentions the demotic P. Mallawi 480)
  13. J. Quaegebeur, Twee laategyptische teksten rond dieren verering, in: Schrijvend verleden. Documenten uit het Oude Nabije Oosten vertaald en toegelicht, ed. K.R. Veenhof, Leiden-Zutphen 1983, 263-276
    (translates a stela of the Buchis-bull and the London Papyrus BM 10845, probably from Tuna, published by Hughes, The cruel father, see above)
  14. G. Vittman, Beobachtungen und Überlegungen zu Fremden und hellinisierten Ägyptern im Dienste einheimischer Kulte, in: W. Clarysse et alii, Egyptian Religion. The last thousand years (Studies in the memory of Jan Quaegebeur), II, Leuven 1998, 1232 (discusses P. Mallawi 480)
  15. G. Vittman, Zwei demotische Briefe an den Gott Thot, in: Enchoria 22, 1995, 169-181
    (an inscription on linen concerning struggles about an ibiotropheion, dated at about 500 BC, published after a photo ex collection Michaelides and a letter in the Austrian National Library, P. Wien D 12026 is mentioning a feeding-place of the ibises)
  16. El-Hussein Zaghlul, Inscribed mummy linen from Egyptian Museums (Bulletin Center Papyrological Studies VII), Cairo 1990
    (contains linen inscriptions from Tuna, not yet seen)
  17. el-Hussein Zaghloul, Frühdemotische Urkunden aus Hermopolis (BCPS 2), Cairo 1985
    (the papyri date to the Persian time!)
  18. el Hussein Zaghloul, An eye disease (Amblyopia) mentioned in a private letter from Tuna El-Gebel (P. Mallawi Inv. no. 484), in: MDAIK 48, 1992, 255-260
    (see the corrected readings by K. T. Zauzich in: Enchoria 19-20, 1994, 227-29)
  19. K.T. Zauzich, Teephibis als Orakelgott, in: Enchoria 4, 1974, 163
    (corrects the reading of Kaplony-Heckel in FuB 14)
  20. K.T. Zauzich, Einige Bemerkungen zu den demot. Papyri Louvre E.3333 und E.3334, in: Enchoria 9, 1979, 121-124
    (corrections to the article of Ray. The papyri mention sites in the Delta).
  21. K.T. Zauzich, Eine unerkannte Orakelfrage, in: Enchoria 19-20, 1994, 227-229
    (P. Mallawi Inv. 184, corrections to Zaghlul, An Eye Disease)
13. The Juridical/Mathematical papyrus
  1. S. Allam, in: Anzeiger für die Altertumswissenschaft 29, 1976, 221-224
  2. S. Allam, Le droit égyptien ancien. Etat de recherches et perspectives, in: ZÄS 105, 1978, 1-6
    (legal manual of Tuna and other juridical matters)
  3. S. Allam, Réflexions sur le ,,Code Légal“ de Hermopolis dans l’Égypte ancienne, in: CdE no. 61, 1986, 50-75
    (with further literature)
  4. S. Allam, Zum Rechtsbuch von Hermopolis, in: Das Altertum 33, 1987, 177-185
    (report for a wider audience)
  5. S. Allam, Aspects of law in Ancient Egypt, in: Bulletin Center of Papyrological Studies 4, 1987, 9-31
    (legal manual of Hermopolis)
  6. S. Allam, Egyptian law courts in Pharaonic and Hellenistic times, in: JEA 77, 1991, 109-127
    (the Egyptian law institutions continue in the Ptolemaic period)
  7. S. Allam, Traces de ‘codification’ en Égypte ancienne (à la basse époque), in: RIDA 40, 1993, 11-26
    (the legal papyrus from Tuna is finally based upon State laws)
  8. V. Arangio-Ruiz, La codification dans l’Egypte ancienne, in: JJP 11-12, 1958, 25-46
  9. Zaky Aly, Egypts contribution towards the promotion of papyrological studies, in: Proceedings of the IXth International congress of Papyrology in Oslo 1958, Oslo 1961, 328-334
    (his excavations in Tuna see p. 329 with plate, report concerning the juridical papyrus and the family archive from 191-162 BC)
  10. E. Bresciani, Frammenti da un ‘prontuario legale’ da Tebtuni nell’ instituto papirologico G. Vitelli, di Firenze, in: EVO 6, 1981, 201-215
  11. Chronique d’Égypte, Le papyrus juridique de Touna-el-Gebel, in: CdE 41, 1946, 48-49
  12. W.E.H. Cockle, State Archives in Graeco-Roman Egypt from 30 BC to the reign of Septimius Severus, in: JEA 70, 1984, 106-122
    (demonstrates the continuation of the Egyptian law and mentions the Legal Papyrus from Tuna)
  13. St. Grunert, Das demotische Rechtsbuch von Hermopolis-West. Zu den Eigentumsverhältnissen im ptolemäischen Ägypten, in: Das Altertum 26, 1980, 96-102
  14. St. Grunert, Der Kodex Hermopolis und ausgewählte private Rechtsurkunden aus dem ptolemäischen Ägypten, Leipzig 1982
    (German translation of the Legal Manual, reviews s. ZSS 99, 1982, 357-367; Pestman, 1984, BiOr 42, 1985, 65, OLZ 82, 1987, 134-137)
  15. St. Grunert, Der juristische Papyrus von Hermopolis – Kodex oder Kommentar, in: Altorientalische Forschungen 10/1, 1983, 151-190
    (argues for a legal code)
  16. St. Grunert, Theorie und Praxis im ptolemäischen Eherecht, in: Grammata Demotika (Festschrift für Erich Lüddeckens), ed. H.J. Thissen – K.-Th Zauzich, Würzburg 1984, 61-69
  17. St. Grunert, Der Kodex Hermopolis – ein Beispiel für die Bedeutung des Eigentums bei der Ausbildung des Rechts im Alten Ägypten, in: Eigentum. Beiträge zu seiner Entwicklung in politischen Gesellschaften. Festschrift W. Sellnow, Weimar 1987
  18. K. Donker van Heel, The legal manual of Hermopolis (P. Mattha): text and translation, Leiden 1990
    (latest edition of the Legal Manual, with bibliography p. VII)
  19. U. Kaplony-Heckel, Streitigkeiten zwischen Nachbarn. Lexikalische Beobachtungen am Rechtsbuch von Hermopolis, in: Akten des XIII. Internationalen Papyrologenkongresses (= Münchner Beiträge zur Papyrusforschung und antiken Rechtsgeschichte 66), München 1974, 199-205
  20. J. Klima, Zum Rechtscharakter der demotischen Gesetzesfragmente von Hermopolis, in: Archiv Orientalni 34, 1966, 417-420
  21. G. Mattha, A preliminary report on the legal code of Hermopolis-West, in: BIE 23, 1940-1, 297-312
  22. G. Mattha, Rights and duties of the eldest son according to the native Egyptian laws of succession of the third century B.C., in: Bulletin of the Faculty of Arts, Cairo 12, 1950, 113-118
    (short report of the Tuna papyrus)
  23. G. Mattha, Egyptian laws of tenure and the obligations of landlord and cultivator towards one another, in: Bulletin Faculty of Arts, Fouad I University, XIII, part II, Cairo 1951, 7-8
  24. G. Mattha, The Demotic Legal Code of Hermopolis West (IFAO, Bibliothéque d’Étude 45), Cairo 1975
    (additional notes and a great deal of the decipherment are due to G. Hughes)
  25. B. Menu, La colonne 2 du ‘Code d’Hermopolis’, in: Actes du XVe Congrès International de Papyrologie, 4e partie, Brüssel 1979, 214-221
  26. B. Menu, Recherches sur l’histoire juridique, économique et sociale de l’ancienne Égypte, Versailles 1982, 332-342
    (see the article above)
  27. B. Menu, Clause de garde dans un bail servant à purger l’antichrèse (sur la col. 2 du ‘Code’ d’Hermoupolis), in: Enchoria 13, 1985, 75-82
  28. R. A. Parker, Demotic Mathematical Papyri (Brown Egyptological Studies, VII) Providence Rhode Island – London 1972
    (demot. Pap. Cairo JdE 89127-130, 89137-143, 89, see pl. 1-14; verso of the juridical papyrus. Review s. Lüddeckens-Velte, in: Enchoria 6, 1976, 131-158)
  29. P.W. Pestman, in: Essays on oriental laws of succession, ed. J. Brugman – M. David – F.R. Kraus – P.W. Pestman – M.H. van der Valk, Leiden 1969, 63.65 Anm. 1.68
  30. P.W. Pestman, Een juridisch ‘Handboek’ uit het oude Egypte in twee talen, in: Phoenix 25, 1975, 25-31
  31. P.W. Pestman, L’origine et l’extension d’un manuel de droit égyptien, in: Journal of the Economic and Social History of the Orient 26, 1983, 14-21
    (reconstructs a demotic legal handbook from the time of Bocchoris).
  32. P.W. Pestman, Some aspects of Egyptian law of Graeco-Roman Egypt. Title deeds and Hypallagma, in: E. v.´t Dack – P.V. Dresserl – W.V. Gucht (editors), Egypt and the Hellenistic World (Studia Hellenistica 27), Leuven 1983, 281-301 (esp. p. 300-301)
  33. P.W. Pestman, Le manuel de droit égyptien de Hermoupolis: les passages transmis en démotique et en grec, in: P.L. Bat 23, 1985, 116-143
  34. P.W. Pestman, Remarks on the legal manual of Hermopolis: A review-article, in: Enchoria 12, 1984, 33-42
    (review of Grunert, 1982)
  35. P.W. Pestman (editor), Textes et études de papyrologie grecque, démotique et copte, Leiden 1985
    (p. 116ff., mentions the Legal Manual of Hermopolis)
  36. P.W. Pestman, ‘Public Protests“ in the demotic Family Archiv of Pchorchonsis, in: Miscellània Papirològica R. Roca-Puig, ed. S. Janeras, Barcelona 1987, 271-281
    (mentions the legal papyrus)
  37. P.W. Pestman, Inheriting in the archive of the Theban choachytes, in: S.P. Vleeming, Aspects of Demotic Lexicography, Studia Demotica I, Leuven 1987, 57-73
    (philological remarks, for example 31(§ 13), §§ 5.6.7 n. 27)
  38. E. Seidl, Bodennutzung und Bodenpacht nach den demotischen Texten der Ptolemäerzeit. Sitzungsberichte der Akad. 291, 2. Abh., Wien 1973
    (see especially 7ff. 31ff.)
  39. E. Seidl, Zur Vorgeschichte der Ersitzung, in: Studia et Documenta Historiae et Juris 39, 1973, 47-52
  40. E. Seidl, Die Verwendung des Eides im Prozeß nach den demotischen Quellen, in: Zeitschrift der Savigny-Stiftung für Rechtsgeschichte, Roman. Abt., 91, 1974, 41-53
  41. E. Seidl, Die Verjährung als sozialer Notbehelf im Rechtsbuch von Hermopolis, in: Zeitschrift der Savigny-Stiftung für Rechtsgeschichte, Roman. Abt. 91, 1974, 360-363
  42. E. Seidl, Nachgiebiges oder zwingendes Erbrecht in Ägypten, in: SDHI 40, 1974, 99-110
  43. E. Seidl, Das Getreidedarlehen nach den demotischen Papyri, Festschrift Daube, Oxford 1974, 301-303
  44. E. Seidl, Die Quittung in den demotischen Texten, in: Le Monde grec = Hommages à Claire Preaux, Brüssel 1975, 716-722
  45. E. Seidl, Eine demotische Juristenarbeit, in: Zeitschrift der Savigny-Stiftung für Rechtsgeschichte, Roman. Abt., 96, 1979, 17-30
    (review of the Legal Manual from Tuna)
  46. E. Seidl, Das private Verbot eines Baues nach dem Rechtsbuch von Hermopolis, in: Grammata Demotika, Festschrift für Erich Lüddeckens zum 15. Juni 1983, Würzburg 1984, 189-192
  47. P. Swiggers, Aspects of daily life in the Hermopolis Papyri, in: Acta Orientalia Belgica VI, 1991, 117-123
  48. H.J. Wolff, Neue Juristische Urkunden, Zeitschrift der Savigny Stiftung für Rechtsgeschichte, Roman. Abt. 96, 1979, 258-271
    (The Greek P. Oxyr. no. 3285 and the Juridical Papyrus)
  49. J. Zeidler, Strukturanalyse spätägyptischer Grabarchitektur, in: Aspekte spätägyptischer Kultur, Festschrift E. Winter, ed. M. Minas – J. Zeidler, Mainz 1994, 269-288
    (mentions Legal Manual col. IX, 30ff.)
14. The Aramaic Papyri (selected literature)
  1. W. Beyerlin (editor), Religionsgeschichtliches Textbuch zum Alten Testament, Grundrisse zum Alten Testament, Band 1, Göttingen 1975, 271-272
    (German translation of the Aramaic Papyrus no. IV from Tuna, with literature)
  2. E. Bresciani – M. Kamil, Le lettere aramaiche di Hermopoli, Academia Nazionale dei Lincei, Memorie della classe di science morali, storiche e filologiche, série VIII, vol. XII, Rom 1966, 356-428
    (first publication)
  3. S. Gabra, Lettres araméennes trouvées à Touna el-Gebel (Hermoupolis Ouest), in: BIE 28, 1947, 161-162
    (short report of the excavator)
  4. D. Hillers, Redemption in Letters 5 and 2 from Hermopolis, in: Ugarit-Forschungen 11, 1979, 379-382
  5. J. Hoftijzer, De Hermopolis-papyri. Arameese brieven uit Egypte (5e eeuw v. Chr.). In: Schrijvend verleden. Documenten uit het Oude Nabije Oosten vertaald en toegelicht, ed. K.R. Veenhof, Ex Oriente Lux, Leiden-Zutphen 1983, 107-119
  6. M. Kamil, Notice on the Aramaic papyri discovered at Hermopolis West, in: Revue de l’histoire Juive en Égypte 1, 1947, 1-3
  7. J.T. Milik, Les papyrus araméens d’Hermopolis et les cultes syro-phénicien en Égypte perse, in: Biblica 48, 1967, 546-622
  8. A. Muraoka, Aramaic epistolography: The Hermopolis Letters and related material in the Persian Period. Phil. Dissertation Hebrew Union College, Cincinnati
    (not seen)
  9. J. Naveh, The palaeography of the Hermopolis papyri, in: IOS 1, 1970, 120-122
  10. B. Porten, The Religion of the Jews of Elephantine in light of the Hermopolis Papyri, in: JNES 28, 1969, 116-121
  11. B. Porten – J. C. Greenfield, The Aramaic Papyri from Hermopolis, in: Zeitschrift für die alttestamentliche Wissenschaft 80, 1968, 216-231
  12. Porten – J. C. Greenfield, Jews of Elephantine and Arameans of Syene, 1974 (aramaic Papyri mentioned p. 158f.)
  13. B. Porten – J. C. Greenfield, Hermopolis Letter 6, in: Israel Oriental Studies 4, 1974, 14-30
  14. B. Porten – A. Yardeni, Text book of Aramaic Documents from Ancient Egypt, 1, Jerusalem 1986, 9-23,
    (no. A 2. 1-7, latest and most useful edition)
  15. P. Swiggers, The Hermopolis papyri III and IV, in: Annali dell’ Instituto Orientale di Napoli 42, 1982, 135-140
15. Greek inscriptions (selected literature)
  1. D. Bailey, Honorific columns, cranes, and the Tuna epitaph, in: Archaeological Research in Roman Egypt (ed. D. Bailey), Ann Arbor 1996, see p. 167/8
    (with a photo of the Greek Harpalos inscription)
  2. F. Barette – B. Boyaval, Catalogue des étiquettes de momies du Musée du Louvre, in CRIPEL ( = Cahiers de Recherches de l’Ìnstitut de Papyrologie et d’Egyptologie de Lille) 2, 1974, 155-264
    (from Tuna/Thynis no. 202-204 on pp. 234-235)
  3. A. Bernand, Alexandrie la Grande, 1998, 182
    (hymns of Isidora)
  4. E. Bernand, Les inscriptions métriques d’Égypte gréco-romaine, Paris 1969, 342-43, no. 86
    (hymns of Isidora)
  5. E. Bernand, Épitaphes métriques d’un pédotribe, in: BIFAO 60, 1960, 131- 150
    (four greek epigrams from a tomb excavated by Muhammed Anwar Shoukry)
  6. E. Bernand, Inscriptions grecques d’Hermoupolis Magna et de sa nécropole (BdE 123); Cairo 1999, 101 ff.
    (collects all known inscriptions from Tuna el-Gebel)
  7. E. Bernand, in: ZPE 87, 1991, 59-64 (= SB 10057) 1
  8. E. Bernand, Poéme et chanson, in: ZPE 88, 1991, 103-105
    (contra A. Bernand, in: ZPE 87, 1991, 45-47)
  9. O.P. Benoît – J. Schwartz, Caracalla et les troubles d’Alexandrie en 215 après J.-C., in: Etudes de Papyrologie 7, 1948, 17-33
    (papyrus copy of an official iuridical protocol, see the article of Hombert and SB 9213)
  10. J. Bingen, in: CdE 87, 1969, 378
    (corrects Bernand, Inscriptions métriques, no. 100 = Musée d’Alexandrie. inv. 128)
  11. B. Boyaval, Corpus des étiquettes de momies grecques, Publication de l’Université de Lille III, Villeneuve d’Ascq 1976, no. 1952-1956
    (from Thynis/Tuna)
  12. B Boyaval, in: ZPE 6, 1970, 34
    (= L. Robert, in: Bull .Épigraphique 1954, 271 = 1971, 719)
  13. A. Calderini, Dizionario dei nomi geografici e topografici dell’Egitto Greco-Romano, II, Milano 1977, 298 (s.v. Thynis) and Dizionario IV, Milano 1986, 244 (s.v. Serapieon). Further see Supplemento 1 (1935-1986), Milano 1988, 149 (s.v. Thynis) and Supplemento 2 (1987-1993), Bonn 1996, 184 (s.v. Sarapieon, 7th c. AD, monastery)
  14. M. Chaveau – H. Cavigny, Les étiquettes de momies Froehner, in Sociétés urbaines en Egypt et au Sudan, in: CRIPEL 9, 1967, 71-80
    (see no. 2-3, p.74-75, two mummy labels mentioning Thynis -Tuna el-Gebel)
  15. M. Drew-Bear, Le nome Hermopolite: Toponymes et Sites (American Studies in Papyrology 21), Missoula 1979
    (see s.v. Serapieon; Thynis)
  16. M. Drew-Bear, Ammonions et Asclépiades, Alexandrins et Hermopolitaines, in: Greek, Roman and Byzantine Studies 32, 1991, 20-213 ( = 10075)
  17. D. Dunand, Chr. Civie-Coche, Dieux et hommes en Égypte, Paris 1991, 266 with fig. 311.314-315.319-320
    (mentions Petosiris, tombs and the Isidora epigrams)
  18. C.C. Edgar, A note on two Greek epigrams, in: ASAE 22, 1922, 78-80
    (epigrams of the tomb of Petosiris)
  19. S. Eitrem, Zwei Grabgedichte auf Isidora aus Hermopolis, in: Archiv für Religionswissenschaft 34, 1937, 313-322
  20. P. M. Fraser, Bibliography: Graeco-Roman Egypte, in: JEA 45, 1969, 88
    (presents grafitti from the Badawy’s excavations)
  21. R. Goossens, Le tombeau du fils d’Épimaque, in: CdE 18, 1934, 346-350
  22. R. Goossens, L’épitaphe de Seuthès et ‘les secondes funérailles’, à Hermopolis, in: CdE 26, 1938, 373-377
    (tries to combine the mentioned ‘second burial’ with Egyptian funeral rites)
  23. G. Graindor, Inscriptions de la nécropole de Touna el-Ghebel (Hermoupolis), in: BIFAO 32, 1932, 97-112
  24. M. Hombert, Papyrus littéraires et documents, in: CdE 24, 1949, 353-355
    (review of Benoît-Schwartz, mentions the find of the papyrus)
  25. L Kákosy, The Nile, Euthenia, and the Nymphs, in: JEA 68, 1982, 294-296
    (interpretation of the Isidora hymns)
  26. G. Lefebvre, Inscriptions chrétiennes du Musée du Caire, in: BIFAO 3, 1903, 69-95 No.41-42
  27. N. Lewis, Ostraka grecs du Musée du Caire, in Etudes de papyrologie, 3, Cairo 1936, 93-111, no. 26 on p. 106 (= JdE 58515, proskynema inscription)
  28. M. Malinine – J. Schwartz, Pierres d’Egypte, in: Revue Archéologique 1960, no. 1, 77-90
    (inscr. I-XV from Tuna)
  29. W. Peek, Griechische Vers-Inschriften, I, Berlin 1955, no. 1897 = W. Peek, Griechische Grabgedichte (Griechisch und Deutsch), Berlin 1960, 263-4 no. 450 (Isidora epigrams) = W. Peek, Grabepigramme, Berlin 1975, no. 1364
  30. W. Peek, Vier Grabgedichte auf einen Paidotriben aus Hermopolis-Magna, in: Wissenschaftliche Zeitschrift Halle 11, 1962, 993-1000
    (not seen, s. the article of E. Bernand)
  31. W. Peek, in: ZPE 11, 1973, 136-137 (= Peek, Grabepigramme, 1955 n.313), 238-239 (= Musée d’Alexandrie, inv. 128, see also the article of Bingen)
  32. W Peek, in: DLZ 1972, 365
    ( inscription of the paedotribe from Tuna)
  33. P. Perdrizet, Le mort qui sentait bon: Mélanges Bidez. In: Annuaire de l’institut de philologie et d’histoire orientales de Bruxelles, t. II, 1934, 719-727
    (see also the article of Goossens)
  34. F. Preisigke – F. Bilabel et alii, Sammelbuch griechischer Urkunden aus Ägypten (= SB), Strasbourg-Berlin-Leipzig 1915ff., SB no. 6306-6308 (Petosiris, graffiti), no. 7437 (demotic-greek mummy label Thynis/Tuna = Brüssel, Musée Cinquantenaire, A 1974), no. 7275-7283 (Petosiris, graffiti) SB 7540-49 (s. the article of Graindor), no. 8065 (proskynema, s. the article of Lewis), no. 9213 (papyrus, the the article of Benoît – Schwartz), no. 9792 (papyrus, a case of robbery near Serapieon kome, s. the article of Zaky Aly), 14411.14412 (demotic-greek mummy label, Paris Bibl. Nat. Inv. 1119.1120)
  35. J. Rea, The Oxyrhynchus Papyri XLVI, Graeco-Roman Memoirs 65, London 1978 = P.Oxy. XLVI 3285
    (partly a greek parallel text to the Legal Manual of Tuna)
  36. Rylands Papyri II, No. 153 = Catalogue of the Greek Papyri in the John Rylands Library Manchester II, London 1915, no. 153, l. 5
    (inscription mentioning the Serapeum on the sand)
  37. SEG VIII (1937) 622.623.626-634.427.476.477;
    XVIII (1962), 678-638.685.686.687.688.689.690.691.692.693.694.695
    XXIX (1979), 1655
    XLI (1991), 1626.1627
  38. R Scholl, Corpus der ptolamäischen Sklaventexte, 1990, 351-373
  39. J. Schwartz, Pierres d’Égypte, in: Revue Archéologique 1960, I, 77-81
    (15 greek inscriptions from Tuna)
  40. J. Schwartz, Épitaphes grecques d’Ègypte, in: ASAE 50, 1950, 401-410
    (p. 408-410 from the collection of M. G. Michaelides: a metric inscription probably from Tuna)
  41. T.C. Skeat, An Epitaph from Hermopolis, in: JEA 68, 1942, 68-69
    (the Harpalos inscription is dated to the beginning of 3rd c. AD)
  42. T. K. Thomas, Late Antique Egyptian funeray sculpture, Princeton 2000, 17-8.67-68 and fig. 91-92
    (translation of epigrams, plans and a photo of the tomb of Isidora)
  43. J. Vergote, Toponymes anciennes et modernes du nome Hermopolite, Studi in onore di A. Calderini e R. Paribeni, Mailand 1956, II, 338-391
    (replaced by the book of M. Drew-Bear)
16. Coptic and Arabic papers (selection)
  1. A.E. Amélineau, La géographie de l’Égypte à l’époque Copte, Paris 1893, reprint 1973, 525-526 (Coptic Tuna el-Gebel, see also p. 502-503)
  2. M.G. Biondi, Inscriptions coptes, in: ASAE 8, 1907, 161-183 (No. 35.80)
  3. M. Cramer, Die Totenklage bei den Kopten (Sitzungsber. Österr. Akademie der Wissenschaften, phil. 219, 2. Abh.), Wien-Leipzig 1941, 24-26 no. 8
    (coptic tomb inscription Cairo JdE 32789, published first by Biondi, 1907)
  4. P. Grossmann, Mittelalterliche Langhauskuppelkirchen und verwandte Typen in Oberägypten, eine Studie zum mittelalterlichen Kirchenbau in Ägypten, in: Abhandlungen Deutsches Archäologisches Institut, Koptische Reihe, 3, Glückstadt 1982, 75.249-250.253 and pl. XXXVIIb
  5. M. Ramzi, Geographisches Wörterbuch der ägyptischen Orte vom Beginn der altägyptischen Zeit bis zum Jahr 1945 (in arabic), Cairo 1963, II (4), 65-66
  6. H. Satzinger, Koptische Urkunden (Ägyptische Urkunden aus den staatlichen Sammlungen Berlin) III, Berlin 1967, 72 no. 369
    (mentions a symposion in the village of Thynis – Tuna el-Gebel)
  7. St. Timm, Das christlich – koptische Ägypten in arabischer Zeit (Beiheft TAVO Reihe B No. 41/5), Teil 5, Wiesbaden 1991, col. 2304-2305 s.v. Sarapieon; Teil 6, Wiesbaden 1992, col. 2876 – 2882 s.v. Tuna
17. Gods and sacred animals of Hermopolis (selected literature)
  1. H. Altenmüller, Messersee, gewundener Wasserlauf und Flammensee, in: ZÄS 92, 1966, 86-95
    (fundamental study concerning the cosmic-mythical Hermopolitan scenery)
  2. P. Boylan, Thot, The Hermes of Egypt: A study of some aspects of theological thought in Ancient Egypt, London 1922
  3. J. Capart, Chats sacrés, in: CdE 35, 1943, 35-37
    (containing theories about sacred animals, being sold to pilgrims. His proposals are widely accepted)
  4. S. Cauville, La chapelle de Thot-Ibis à Dendera édifiée sous Ptolemée Ier par Hor, scribe d’Amon-Re, in: BIFAO 89, 1989, 43-66
    (archaeological example for an institution of the god Thot-Ibis in a town. A similar one must have existed in Hermopolis)
  5. Fr. de Cenival, Les associations religieuses en Egypte d’après les documcnts démotiques (BdE 46), Cairo 1972
    (description of Egyptian ibis and falcon cult associations)
  6. A. Charron, Massacres d’animaux à la Basse Époque (Brèves communications), in: RdE 41, 1990, 209-213
    (discusses sacrifices of cats and other sacred animals, mentions Tuna el-Gebel too)
  7. E. Cruz-Uribe, Hibis Temple Project vol. 1, Translations, Commentary, Discussions and Sign List, San Antonio 1988
    (see esp. pp 32-33)
  8. N. de Garis Davies, The Temple of Hibis in el Khargeh Oasis, Part III, the decoration (Egyptian Expedition Publications volume XVII), New York 1953
    (with theological pictures and aspects of gods of Hermopolis)
  9. S. Gabra, Le culte de Thot à Hermopolis, in Actes XXIe Congrès Oriental, 1949, 61-62
  10. P. Gallo, A proposito del termine demotico aXjt e dell’ eventuale corrispondenza greca ibion, in: EVO 9, 1986, 45-48
    (combines the toponym with the stem axj, to fly)
  11. G. Jéquier, Le quatre cynocéphales, in: Egyptian Religion 2, 1934, 77-86
  12. L. Keimer, Pavian and Dum-Palme. In: MDIK 8, 1939, 203-208
    L. Keimer, Pavian und Dum-Palme, in: MDIK 8, 1938, 42-45
  13. D. Kessler, Tierkult, in: Lexikon der Ägyptologie VI, Wiesbaden 1986, 571-587, s.v.
  14. D. Kessler, Herodot II, 65-67 über heilige Tiere in Bubastis, in: SAK 18, 1991, 263-289
    (comments also the notice of Herodot about dead ibises, brought to Hermopolis-Tuna.)
  15. D. Kessler, Der Gott Thot-Stier, in: Dieter Kessler – Regine Schulz (editors), Gedenkschrift für Winfried Barta Htp dj n hzj (MÄU 4), Frankfurt 1995, 229 – 245
    (The god of the Great Temple in Tuna is bull of the sky)
  16. H. Koskenniemi, Neue Texte zum Ibiskult aus dem 2. Jh. v.Chr., in: Proceedings of the 20th International Congress of Papyrologists Copenhagen, 23-29 August, 1992, Copenhagen 1994, 254-257
  17. G. Lefebvre, L’oeuf divin d’Hermopolis, in: ASAE 23, 1923, 65-67
    (refers to Petosiris inscr.)
  18. Ch. Picard, Les babouins sacrés d’Ashmounein (Hermoupolis), in: Revue Archéologique 6, 1948, 71-73
  19. J. Quaegebeur, Teephibis, dieu oraculaire ?, in: Enchoria 5, 1975, 19-24
  20. J. Quaegebeur, Thot-Hermes, le dieu le plus grand, in: Hommages à Francois Daumas, II, Montpellier 1986, 525-544
    (research about the Trismegistos and its Egyptian counterpart, see also M.Th. and Ph. Derchain, in: GM 15, 1975, 7-10 and J. D. Ray, The Archive of Hor, Oxford 1976, 133f.)
  21. G. Roeder, Die Kosmogonie von Hermopolis, in: Egyptian Religion, I, New York 1933, 1-27
  22. K. Sethe, Amun und die Acht Urgötter von Hermopolis, Berlin 1929
  23. K.A.D. Smelik, The Cult of the Ibis in die Graeco-Roman Period, with special attention to the data from the papyri, in M. J. Vermaseren (editor), Studies in Hellenistic Religions EPRO 78, Leiden 1979, 225-243
  24. K. Vandorpe, Les villages des ibis, in: Enchoria 18, 1991, 115-122
    (collects the demotic toponymes tA aXjt and the greek Ibion kome)
  25. G.A. Wainwright, The ram-headed god at Hermopolis, in: JEA 9, 1923, 26-33
  26. M. Weber, Ibis, in Reallexikon für Antike und Christentum, Stuttgart 1994, Lieferung 129, Sp. 106-147, s.v.
  27. A. Zivie, Ibis, in: LÄ III, col. 118, s.v.
18. Hermopolis Magna (selected literature with references to Tuna)
  1. D. Arnold, Zur Rekonstruktion des Pronaos von Hermopolis, in: MDAIK 50, 1994, 13-22
    (the article is also important for the reconstruction of the temple of Osiris-Baboon in Tuna)
  2. H. Beinlich, Die „Osirisreliquien“, zum Motiv der Körperzergliederung in der altägyptischen Religion, Ägypt. Abh. 42, Wiesbaden 1984, 126-127. 230-232
    (texts concerning the 15th Upper Egyptian Nome)
  3. M. Kamal, Excavations of the Antiquities Department (1942) in the so-called ‘Agora’ of Hermopolis (Ashmunein), in: ASAE 46, 1947, 289-295
  4. P. Pensabene, (in) Repertorio d’arte dell’Egitto Greco-Romano, vol. III, Rom 1993, 244-273
    (describes the main buildings of Hermopolis; for Tuna see above ch. 1)
  5. G. Roeder, Hermopolis 1929 – 1939, Hildesheim 1959
    (with a survey of the toponyms of the Hare Nome)
  6. G. Roeder, Der Urzeit-Bezirk und die Urgottheiten von Hermopolis, in: ZÄS 67, 1931, 82-88
  7. G. Roeder, Zwei hieroglyphische Inschriften aus Hermopolis, in: ASAE 52, 1952, 315-442
  8. S.R. Snape – D.M. Bailey, The Great Portico at Hermopolis Magna: present state and past prospects, British Museum Expedition to Middle Egypt Occasional Papers No 63, London 1988
    (compares the tomb of Petosiris with the temple in Hermopolis)
  9. A.J.Spencer, British Museum Expedition to Middle Egypt, Excavations at el-Ashmunein 1, The Topography of the Site, London 1982
    (with older literature p. 9-10)
  10. A.J. Spencer, Excavations at El-Ashmunein, II, The Temple Area, London 1989
  11. A.J.B. Wace – A.H.S. Megaw – T.C. Skeat, Hermopolis Magna, Ashmunein, The Ptolemaic Sanctuary and the Basilica, Alexandria 1959
    (Pensabene assumes here the known Ptolemaic Serapeion and Nilaion)